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Mexico and Central America


a type of corn


(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.


an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings

valley of mexico

a fertile valley between two mountain chains in central Mexico


Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)


showing inventiveness and skill


floating islands of land anchored to a lake bottom used for agriculture. This technique was used by the Aztecs.


payment from conquered people


A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.


A culture that thrived in the Andean region from 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.


a civilization that flourished on what is now the northern coast of Peru from about A.D. 100 to 700.


A brick or building material made of sun-dried earth and straw.


a civilization that flourished on what is now the sourthern coast of Peru from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 600.


a city that controlled much of Peru's mountain and coastal areas


a culture that thrived in the Andean region from about 200 A.D. to 1000 A.D.

pachacuti inca yupanqui

a skilled warrior and leader, proclaimed himself Sapa Inca, or emperor

sapa inca

The emperor of the Incan Empire. People believed that he was descended from the sun god.


a town in the Andes in southern Peru


A series of connections and contacts


knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the inca to keep financial records


extended family group, community cooperation system used by the Incas.


Sun god of the Incas who believed he was the parent and they were children of the sun


a whole composed of various interrelated parts

mesa verde

large cliff dwelling in Colorado,holds several thousand people,dwellings were easy to defend,offered protection-provided a safe place for Anasazi


villages of large apartment-style compounds made of stone and adobde.

pueblo bonito

An Anasazi villiage that flourished from 950 to 1300 AD, now in ruins located in what is now northwestern New Mexico


Large underground chamber used by the Anasazi for religious ceremonies.


sculptural forms made of materials such as earth, rocks, and sometimes plants


the leading site of the Mississippian culture that built a 100-foot high, flat topped earthen pyramid.


native american celebration in which the hosts give gifts to their guests

iroquois league

a league of Iroquois tribes including originally the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (the Five Nations)

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