American HTG Unit 3

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What does this mean:
"A dependence on the people"
"Auxiliary precautions"
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Terms in this set (99)
He represented the notion that human beings can own other human beings, and it was tolerable and should be the way things should beJohn C. CalhounThe Failure of the Founding InstitutionsFederalism left sovereignty unresolved Separation of powers and checks and balances create gridlock Politics offered no real way to compromise Neither institutional design, nor public virtue avoided the catastrophe. So they just debated and debatedWhat was important about the Election of 1860?The Election of 1860 demonstrated the divisions within the United States just before the Civil War with issues including secession; the relationship between the federal government, states, and territories; and slavery and abolitionWhy did Animal Farm Fail?Because of the lack of institutions implemented after the revolutionHero of little round top battle in the battle of Gettysburg, because it was vital for the Union army to not lose this hilltop position to prevent the Confederates from breaking through their lines.Joshua ChamberlainTaney (Supreme court judge) ruled that slaves were property under the Fifth Amendment, and that any law that would deprive a slave owner of that property was unconstitutional.Dred Scott Vs. Sandforda 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equalPlessy V. Ferguson1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education.Brown V. Board of Educationlegalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacyRoe v. WadeCommander of Confederate ArmyRobert E LeeNorthern General that wasn't goodGeorge B McClellanWhite leading commander of the first black regiment - 54th MassachusettsRobert Gould Shaw (northern talent)Who wasn't given enough credit for designing the plan for the North to win?Ulysses S GrantStructural Changes after the Civil warthe 13,14, and 15th amendments were added to the constitution and had to be ratified by every state in order for a state to be readmitted13 amendmentabolished slavery14th AmmendmentRights of CItizens- granted citizenship to all people born in the US. Applies the Bill of Rights to all states15th Ammendmentvoting rights; all citizens have the right to vote no matter what, color, race, previous condition of servitude. women could still not voteWho a radical republic who wanted to punish the south after the civil war?Thaddeus StevensWhat problems must the government deal with today?o Public Goods / Tragedies of the Commons o Imperfect Information o Externalities o Monopolies o Economic Instability o Economic Injusticea good that can be consumed by one individual without diminishing the amount available for others to consumepublic goodCaptures the horrid living conditions of the slums, where he was able to photograph the filth and terrible conditions of the super poor and showed it to the wealthy. His book, "How the other half lives" that shows how slums in New York lives and they eventually tear all those kind of slum tenants down.Jacob RiisThey changed politics forever, often in good ways, but not always... (and not as much as they wanted to change it)ProgressivesProgressive's greatest achievement wasthe 19th amendment-though it would take decades for that change to unfoldPositive name for wealthy business owners of this time. Says that they helped the country become strong.Titans of industryRefers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.Robber BaronsA Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.Andrew Carnegiean economy loses beneficial exchanges with what?MonopoliesBecause people do not accurately value a good or service, because of incomplete or inaccurate information, an exchange can take place that is not mutually beneficialImperfect InformationCan significantly raise or lower price by changing production because it has exclusive control over a commercial activityMonopoliesa group of business that cooperate to exercise monopoly power, but they are obviously difficult to stabilizeCartelsA social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages led by Carrie NationTemperance movementv When a third party not directly involved in the transaction either benefits or is harmed by the exchangeExternalitiesProgressives reform to MonopoliesAnti-trust laws and breaking up big companies if necessaryThe taxes are a constant percentage of incomeProportional Tax ("flat")secret agreement or cooperation to maintain a high priceCollusionA law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.Land Ordinance of 1785Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slaveryNorthwest Ordinance of 1787A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s. Wanted to cure the ills they saw in society caused by private power and viewed the Constitution as an obstacle (because it was in some ways).They instituted a number of reforms that reverberate still.Progressivesthe political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite. Began as a rural movement that advocated for the rights of small farmers. They believed the blame laid with the banks and with the railroads.PopulismThe movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolutionProgressivismA policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations. This is what the United States favored for much of the 19th century and beyond. This did not mean not reaching out to foreign allies but rather not getting "entangled" in their affairs.Isolationisman American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers. Any aggression or move by a European power in the Western hemisphere would be considered a challenge and affront to the United States.Monroe DoctrineA notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. Did not really comply with the belief of isolationism. Also was not compatible with anti-imperialist ideals.Manifest DestinyThe term for the unity of Americans supporting the democratic ideals in fighting World War II, as well as the economy booming by production for the war and rationing.the good warChief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.Earl WarrenTheory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms. Did not believe that economies were self-regulating. Focused on the fiscal side.Keynesian Economicspower that relies on influence and persuasion. Big companies have this kind of power and influence on the economy.Private powerGovernment policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending. Controlled by the executive and the legislative because bills can be passed.Fiscal PolicyResources are left unused even though full employment/use of resources would be beneficial. Government intervention includes unemployment insurance, monetary and fiscal policies.Economic Instability or RecessionProgressive reform for government intervention with public goodsGovernment intervention includes national defense and navigation systems.Progressive reform for government intervention with imperfect informationFDAProgressive reform for government intervention with externalitiesProhibition of alcohol & be the first conservation laws Environmental Protection agenciesProgressive reform for government intervention with economic recessionunemployment insurances, monetary and fiscal policiesProgressive reform for government intervention with economic inequalitysocial security, Medicare, wealth tax policyProgressive income tax`16th amendmentProhibition to alcohol18th Amendmentrepeal of prohibition of alcohol21 amendmentWoodrow Wilson's 14 pointsa statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.Women's suffrage (women can vote)19th amendmentMoves election day from March 4th to January 20th20th amendmentThe president can only serve two terms22 amendmentWashington DC can vote for the president23rd amendmentAnti-Poll law24 AmmendmentIf anything were to happen to the president, his successor would become president25 amendment18 year olds can vote26th amendmentDirect election of senators17th amendmentan election that allows citizens to propose legislation or state constitutional amendments by submitting them to the electorate for popular voteInitiativeA state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendmentReferendumprocedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from officeRecallWho pushed parties to hold primaries to prevent 'back room' nominations, thus pushing for primary elections to be created?Progressiveso America stopped making things (recession spiral) o A bank run (everybody wanted their money back from a panic) o Dust Bowl (led to agricultural goods are falling and their quality is leading to worse diets) o Hooverville ( they thought that President Hoover was unresponsive to the poor during the Great Depression) o Men sometimes couldn't find work sometimes and abandoned their familiesCauses of Great DepressionJohn Rawls in a thought experiment, suggested that the way to think about this was behind a veil of ignorance. The veil of ignorance makes it an unbiased perspective to create a fairer just system that generally includes everyone, not leaving out anybody. John Rawls believes the veil of ignorance provides equality for most people, where we can't argue equality as long as everyone benefitsVeil of IgnoranceTaxes as a percentage of income decrease with income (the poor pay a greater percentage than the rich)Regressive TaxTax as a percentage of income increases with income (the rich pays a greater than the poor)Progressive TaxThe greatest economic crisis in American historyGreat DepressionWho came into office during the great depression?Franklin D RooseveltWhat was FDR's proposal to help the Great Depression?New Deal: NRA: National Recovery Administration WPA: Works Progress Administration CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps AAA: Agricultural Adjustment ActDecrease/Increase the money supply. Lower/ Higher interest ratesMonetary Policyinstitutionalized corporate welfare of a sort, leading to the second problem: private/ public "partnerships"New Deal LegacyThe great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possibleWashington's advice in regards to foreign policyWho was the first president to really get involved with foreign policy?Woodrow WilsonWilson also proposed the founding of a "general association of nations" that would mediate international disputes and foster cooperation between different nations in the hopes of preventing war on such a large scale in the future. This organization eventually became known as the League of Nations.Wilson's fourteen points with Foreign affairsKey events in the Civil Rights MovementBrown v Board of Education Murder of Emmett Till Montgomery Bus Boycott March on Washington The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965What needed to be overcome in Institiutions?embedded racial inequality with legislative actions for civil rights movementsWhat was the spur to achieving the necessary institutional change?Public virtueKing's legaciesWealth, Social interaction, racism, and progressWhen the two parties take sharply different stances against one another When party activists (and perhaps the public) take extreme (perhaps very extreme) positionsPolarizationLoyalty seems to be tied more to the party than the set of issues among both republicans and democratsProblems with partisanship· Three big lessons from the Foundingo The founding showed the importance of process o Who specifically governs is less important than the process o The constitution is inspired, but in a specific way. And it only gives us a chance to have a good society