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biology 189 exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
atoms
smallest unit of matter
molecule
2 or more atoms
cell
2 or more molecules
tissues
2 or more cells
oran
2 or more tissues
organ system
2 or more organs
organism
smallest unit that properties life
population
2 or more organisms
community
all species
ecosystem
physical factor
eukaryotic cell
nucleus, protists, plants, fungi, animal
prokaryotic cell
simple and smaller. Such as bacteria and archea
life
have atleast one cell, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis
cellular organization
all living thing are composed of at least one cell
metabolism
all livin gthings process energy to maintain iteself, grow, and to make more cells
homeostasis
all living things maintain stable internal environments to optimize condiions for metabolism and other processes.
growth and reproduction
all organisms have the capacity for growth and reproduction
heredity
dna passing on
matter
has mass that takes up space. all matter is made up of small particles called atoms
atoms
all atoms have the same structure:smallest particles that retain properties of an element(protons, neutrons, electrons)
core
dense nucleus comprised of subatomic particles
protons
positive charge
neutrons
neutral charge
electrons
negative charge
orbits the nucleus
electrons
atomic #
number of protons
mass #
protons + neutrons
element
atoms with same # of protons
isotope
different number of neutrons
determines the chemical behavior of atoms.
electrons
associated with energy
electrons
potential energy
due to energy of position
field of energy
around the atom is arranged levels called electron fields
1st shell can hold?
2 electrons
2nd shell can hold?
8 electrons
3rd shell can hold?
8 electrons
what determines whether atoms will interact?
the number and arrangement of their electrons.
true or false:electrons in the outer most energy level can participate in bonds?
true
do atoms wish to be stable or unstable?
stable
What do atoms bond to form?
molecules
Molecules contain atoms of how many elements?
one
Molecules of compounds contain more than how many elements?
one
molecule
a group of atoms held together by energy.
Chemical bond
the energy holding two atoms together
3 types of chemical bonds
ionic, cations, and anions.
ionic
equal number of electrons and protons that has no net charge
cations
loses an electron and becomes positively charged
anions
gains electron(s) and becomes negatively charged
covalent bonding
(sharing) atoms share a pair of or pairs of electrons to fill outer most shell.
hydrogen bonds
caused by or require weak covalent bonds where one nucleus attracts the shared electrons more than another nucleus.
nonpolar covalent bond
atoms share the electrons equally
polar covalent bond
the atoms do not share the electrons equally and one atom is more electronegative
the more electronegative of an atom
the ore strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself
unequal sharing of electrons causes what?
a partial positive or negative charge for each atom or molecule
cohesion
collectivley, hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together(water vs. water)
adhesion
attraction between different substances. Ex: between water and plant cell walls(water vs. something else)
surface tension
a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid.surface tension is related to cohesion.