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The basic blocks of heredity are ______


The ______ gland secretes growth hormones and hormones that stimulate labor in pregnant womend


Most normal human cells contain ______ chromosomes that are organized into ______ pairs

46; 23

The testes and ovaries produce the hormones ___,____, and _____.

testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

The EEG measure the brain's ______ activity.


The ________ , which is located in the forebrain, is involved in learning and memory.

limbic system

_____ studies evaluate people who are related to try to determine the roles of heredity and environment.


The ______ is the part of the hindbrain that helps control such vital functions as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.


A CAT scan uses ____ beams to create a three-dimensional view of the brain.


Hormones that affect the body's metabolism are secreted by the ____ gland.


The function of the ____ is to carry messages away from the neuron's cell body.


the autonomic nervous system is divided into the ______ and ______ nervous systems.

symatic; parasymatic

The two part of the nervous system re the _____ nervous system and the _______nervous system.

Peripheral; Central

The ________ transmits messages between the brain and the muscles and glands.

nervous system

Each hemisphere of cerebral cortex is divided in ____ lobes.


Something that produces a response us called a ____.


A response that is automatic, or not learned, is called a ______.

unconditioned response

The method of ______ involved exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it.


A stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a condition response is a ______.

conditioned stimulus

A _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is removed.


______ is the method of teaching complex behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts.


The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ______

latent learning

Reinforcements are applied with a set amount of time between them on a _____ schedule.

fixed interval

The first step in the PQ4R method involves _____ the subject matter in a textbook.


A ____ reinforcer is learned and becomes effective by being paired wit such reinforcer as food and shelter.s


The "4R's" of the PQ4R method are:

read, recite, reflect, review

_____ reinforcement occurs when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.


On a ______ schedule, reinforcements are provided only after a certain number of correct responses have been made.

fixed ratio

A ____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is applied.


The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called _____

observation learning.

The process by which we recall experiences, info, and skills is known as _____


____ is the memory process that translates info into a dorm in which it can be stored.


Info stored as a ____ code is stored according to its meaning.


The memory process by which we maintain encoded info over a period of time is called ______.


_____ memory is a type of sensory register that holds visual memories.


______ memories are recalled better when the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated.

state- dependent

_____ is the memory process that allows people to locate stored into and return it to conscious though


____ memories are examples of episodic memories that are recalled in great detail


Working memory is another name for ____ memory


____ memory consists of general knowledge.


The first item in a series is more easily remembered because of the ____ effect.

primacy effect

_____ is the process in which info in short-term memory is lost when new info appears.


_____ amnesia is the loss of memories of events that occurred before that age of three.


Disturbing memories may be pushed out of the conscious mind in the process of ____;


The method of ____ organizes items into familiar units so that they can be remembered more easily.


The APA generally requires that people in a study provide ______ after being give a general overview of the research and the choice whether or not to participate.

informed consent

Stress and health are thought to have a ______ since stress goes up as health deteriorates.

negative correlation

______ can slant the results of a survey because people who volunteer to participte in reasearch studies often differ from people who do not.

volunteer bias

In an experiment, _____ is the factor that varies when the independent variable is changed.

dependent variable

for the findings of a study to be confirmed, the study must be ____ to produce the same results as before.


The standard of ____ established by the APA limits the type of research that psychologists may conduct.


____________ enables researcher to study the behavior of people and animals in their everyday settings.

Natural observation

Need for achievement and salaries are thought to have a _____ since as one goes up, so does the other.

positive correlation

In a _______, neither the researchers nor the participants know who is receiving the treatment.

double blind study

Members of the ______ in an experiment are the ones who receive the treatment.

experimental group

People who participate in a ____ are selected by chance from a certain population to take part in a survey.

random sample

the _____ method takes much less time than the longitudinal method, but can accomplish many of the same objectives.

cross sectional

Since it is usually impossible to interview every member of a population that is being studied, pyschologists scientifically select a ____ of the population.


_____ observation has the drawback that it cannot duplicate real-life conditions


A ____ experiment uses both control and experimental groups.


The two kinds of photoreceptors are ______ and _____.

cons; rods

______ is the process by which we interpret sensory stimulation; ____ is the process of receiving sensory info.

perception; sensation

A sound's pitch depends on its

frequency of sound waves.

The _______, which has no photoreceptors, is the point at which the optic nerves leaves the eye.

blind spot

Perspective and texture gradients are example of ____ cues


The ______ is the spectrum of light bent into a circle.

color wheel

The loudness of a sound depends on the _____ of the sound waves.


A person who cannot perceive some colors is partially _______

color blind

Light is made up of ______ energy.


Retinal disparity is an example of a _____ cue.


We recognize that an object has only one shape-no matter what angle it is viewed from - because of ____.

shape constancy

Pressure, temperature, and pain are examples of ____ senses.


The ______ of a color is its complementary color.


Movies, which are a series of still picture, are perceived as moving images because of the perceptual rule of ____

stroboscopic motion

The monocular cue of ____parallax explains why someone in a moving vehicle sees nearby objects pass by quickly.


Consciousness is considered a psychological _____ because we cannot see, touch or measure it directly.


During a typical 8 hours of sleep, most people go through _____ sleep cycles.


Difficulty falling asleep is called___


During _____, some people narrow their consciousness by focusing on a peaceful, repetitive pattern.


Ideas that a person is not aware of, but which can be recalled, are on the ____level.


The four different kinds of brain-wave patterns are:

alpha, beta, delta, theta

Freud believed that dreams reflected our ___ wishes and urges.


_______ are similar to, but more severe than nightmares.

night terrors

After taking certain drugs for a while, a person shows signs of ___ when the body craves the drug just to feel normal.


A therapist may hypnotize a patient and offer a _____ to help the patient quit a habit such as smoking or overeating

posthypnotic suggestion

_____ are drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system.


Nicotine causes a person's heart rate to increase by causing the release of the hormone____.


_____ are drugs that speed up the activity of the nervous system.


Nonsmokers are at risk of getting lung cancer or breathing problems when exposed to _____

secondhand smoke

Overdoses of crack and other forms of cocaine can be fatal because of the strain they place on the _____


Psychological _____ explain and predict what governs behavior and mental processes.


Clinical psychologists _____ prescribe medication to a client; but psychiatrists ___

cannot; can

____ psychologists typically treat people with adjustment problems, rather than those with serious disorders.


Research that has no immediate application is known as ______

basic research

____ and ____ psychologists offer suggestions on how to improve working conditions.

industrial; organization

The Greek philosopher _____ wrote Peri Psyches, one of the first books.


During the middle ages, most Europeans believed that psychological problems were caused by ____

possession of demons

Along with history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology, psychology is on of the _____

social science

The school of _____ was concerned with studying how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.


In the 1800s psychologists established _____ for the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.

psychological labs

B.F. Skinner's concept of _____ showed that an animal is more likely to repeat an action if rewarded for it.


_____ founded psychoanalysis.


_____ psychologists help prepare achievement tests, while _____ psychologists administer these tests.

education, school

the ___ perspective argues that people can learn by experience and by observing others.


The cognitive perspective focuses on ___ processes to explain human behavior


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