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105 terms


The basic blocks of heredity are ______
The ______ gland secretes growth hormones and hormones that stimulate labor in pregnant womend
Most normal human cells contain ______ chromosomes that are organized into ______ pairs
46; 23
The testes and ovaries produce the hormones ___,____, and _____.
testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone
The EEG measure the brain's ______ activity.
The ________ , which is located in the forebrain, is involved in learning and memory.
limbic system
_____ studies evaluate people who are related to try to determine the roles of heredity and environment.
The ______ is the part of the hindbrain that helps control such vital functions as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.
A CAT scan uses ____ beams to create a three-dimensional view of the brain.
Hormones that affect the body's metabolism are secreted by the ____ gland.
The function of the ____ is to carry messages away from the neuron's cell body.
the autonomic nervous system is divided into the ______ and ______ nervous systems.
symatic; parasymatic
The two part of the nervous system re the _____ nervous system and the _______nervous system.
Peripheral; Central
The ________ transmits messages between the brain and the muscles and glands.
nervous system
Each hemisphere of cerebral cortex is divided in ____ lobes.
Something that produces a response us called a ____.
A response that is automatic, or not learned, is called a ______.
unconditioned response
The method of ______ involved exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it.
A stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a condition response is a ______.
conditioned stimulus
A _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is removed.
______ is the method of teaching complex behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts.
The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ______
latent learning
Reinforcements are applied with a set amount of time between them on a _____ schedule.
fixed interval
The first step in the PQ4R method involves _____ the subject matter in a textbook.
A ____ reinforcer is learned and becomes effective by being paired wit such reinforcer as food and shelter.s
The "4R's" of the PQ4R method are:
read, recite, reflect, review
_____ reinforcement occurs when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.
On a ______ schedule, reinforcements are provided only after a certain number of correct responses have been made.
fixed ratio
A ____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is applied.
The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called _____
observation learning.
The process by which we recall experiences, info, and skills is known as _____
____ is the memory process that translates info into a dorm in which it can be stored.
Info stored as a ____ code is stored according to its meaning.
The memory process by which we maintain encoded info over a period of time is called ______.
_____ memory is a type of sensory register that holds visual memories.
______ memories are recalled better when the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated.
state- dependent
_____ is the memory process that allows people to locate stored into and return it to conscious though
____ memories are examples of episodic memories that are recalled in great detail
Working memory is another name for ____ memory
____ memory consists of general knowledge.
The first item in a series is more easily remembered because of the ____ effect.
primacy effect
_____ is the process in which info in short-term memory is lost when new info appears.
_____ amnesia is the loss of memories of events that occurred before that age of three.
Disturbing memories may be pushed out of the conscious mind in the process of ____;
The method of ____ organizes items into familiar units so that they can be remembered more easily.
The APA generally requires that people in a study provide ______ after being give a general overview of the research and the choice whether or not to participate.
informed consent
Stress and health are thought to have a ______ since stress goes up as health deteriorates.
negative correlation
______ can slant the results of a survey because people who volunteer to participte in reasearch studies often differ from people who do not.
volunteer bias
In an experiment, _____ is the factor that varies when the independent variable is changed.
dependent variable
for the findings of a study to be confirmed, the study must be ____ to produce the same results as before.
The standard of ____ established by the APA limits the type of research that psychologists may conduct.
____________ enables researcher to study the behavior of people and animals in their everyday settings.
Natural observation
Need for achievement and salaries are thought to have a _____ since as one goes up, so does the other.
positive correlation
In a _______, neither the researchers nor the participants know who is receiving the treatment.
double blind study
Members of the ______ in an experiment are the ones who receive the treatment.
experimental group
People who participate in a ____ are selected by chance from a certain population to take part in a survey.
random sample
the _____ method takes much less time than the longitudinal method, but can accomplish many of the same objectives.
cross sectional
Since it is usually impossible to interview every member of a population that is being studied, pyschologists scientifically select a ____ of the population.
_____ observation has the drawback that it cannot duplicate real-life conditions
A ____ experiment uses both control and experimental groups.
The two kinds of photoreceptors are ______ and _____.
cons; rods
______ is the process by which we interpret sensory stimulation; ____ is the process of receiving sensory info.
perception; sensation
A sound's pitch depends on its
frequency of sound waves.
The _______, which has no photoreceptors, is the point at which the optic nerves leaves the eye.
blind spot
Perspective and texture gradients are example of ____ cues
The ______ is the spectrum of light bent into a circle.
color wheel
The loudness of a sound depends on the _____ of the sound waves.
A person who cannot perceive some colors is partially _______
color blind
Light is made up of ______ energy.
Retinal disparity is an example of a _____ cue.
We recognize that an object has only one shape-no matter what angle it is viewed from - because of ____.
shape constancy
Pressure, temperature, and pain are examples of ____ senses.
The ______ of a color is its complementary color.
Movies, which are a series of still picture, are perceived as moving images because of the perceptual rule of ____
stroboscopic motion
The monocular cue of ____parallax explains why someone in a moving vehicle sees nearby objects pass by quickly.
Consciousness is considered a psychological _____ because we cannot see, touch or measure it directly.
During a typical 8 hours of sleep, most people go through _____ sleep cycles.
Difficulty falling asleep is called___
During _____, some people narrow their consciousness by focusing on a peaceful, repetitive pattern.
Ideas that a person is not aware of, but which can be recalled, are on the ____level.
The four different kinds of brain-wave patterns are:
alpha, beta, delta, theta
Freud believed that dreams reflected our ___ wishes and urges.
_______ are similar to, but more severe than nightmares.
night terrors
After taking certain drugs for a while, a person shows signs of ___ when the body craves the drug just to feel normal.
A therapist may hypnotize a patient and offer a _____ to help the patient quit a habit such as smoking or overeating
posthypnotic suggestion
_____ are drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system.
Nicotine causes a person's heart rate to increase by causing the release of the hormone____.
_____ are drugs that speed up the activity of the nervous system.
Nonsmokers are at risk of getting lung cancer or breathing problems when exposed to _____
secondhand smoke
Overdoses of crack and other forms of cocaine can be fatal because of the strain they place on the _____
Psychological _____ explain and predict what governs behavior and mental processes.
Clinical psychologists _____ prescribe medication to a client; but psychiatrists ___
cannot; can
____ psychologists typically treat people with adjustment problems, rather than those with serious disorders.
Research that has no immediate application is known as ______
basic research
____ and ____ psychologists offer suggestions on how to improve working conditions.
industrial; organization
The Greek philosopher _____ wrote Peri Psyches, one of the first books.
During the middle ages, most Europeans believed that psychological problems were caused by ____
possession of demons
Along with history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology, psychology is on of the _____
social science
The school of _____ was concerned with studying how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.
In the 1800s psychologists established _____ for the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.
psychological labs
B.F. Skinner's concept of _____ showed that an animal is more likely to repeat an action if rewarded for it.
_____ founded psychoanalysis.
_____ psychologists help prepare achievement tests, while _____ psychologists administer these tests.
education, school
the ___ perspective argues that people can learn by experience and by observing others.
The cognitive perspective focuses on ___ processes to explain human behavior