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Terms in this set (72)
Which of the following is not a characteristic of living things?
Living things allow their internal environments to match conditions in the external environment.
store genetic information in living organisms.
Fats and oils are
Cellulose, the macromolecule found in plant cell walls, is a
One difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that
prokaryotic cells have existed on Earth far longer than eukaryotic cells
All of the following are eukaryotes except
Escherichia coli, an occupant of the human digestive tract.
In plant cells, the organelles where photosynthesis takes place are
The organelles that build proteins in cells are called
The organelles that function as a cell's "garbage disposals," breaking down organic materials, are
have a hydrophobic portion as well as a hydrophilic portion.
Phospholipids in the cell membrane are positioned in a bilayer with their _______ pointing inward.
In the process of osmosis, (D)
A) water diffuses from an area with a high concentration of water molecules to an area with a low concentration of water molecules.
B) water moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
C) water moves into cells.
D) both A and B
The gases oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of cells through
The sodium-potassium pump provides an example of
In the chemical equation for the process of photosynthesis, the reactants are
carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
During which of the following processes is most ATP generated?
sugar is split, and ATP is generated.
During alcoholic fermentation,
carbon dioxide is released
Golgi apparatuses is:
organelle that receives products from the endoplasmic reticulum, modifies them, and packages them.
The genes of an organism make up its ________, and the traits of an organism make up its ________.
A section of DNA that contains instructions for building a protein is a _____.
A cell that has two of each kind of chromosome is ______.
One strand of DNA has the sequence CAGTC. The opposite strand has the sequence
If DNA is described as resembling a ladder in structure, the "sides" of the ladder consist of ________ and the "rungs" of the ladder consist of ________.
sugar and phosphate; nitrogenous bases
When DNA is replicated in eukaryotes,
each new molecule of DNA consists of one old strand and one new strand.
The proper sequence of events in building a protein from a gene is
RNA and DNA differ in all of the following except:
RNA uses a completely different set of nitrogenous bases compared to DNA.
Transcription occurs in the ________ of a cell, and translation occurs in the ________ of a cell.
Which statement about genetic mutations is false?
Genetic mutations are always harmful.
If one nucleotide is substituted for another nucleotide in a gene, then
a point mutation has occurred.
Which of the following would produce a frameshift mutation? (D)
A) the insertion of a single nucleotide in a gene
B) the deletion of a single nucleotide in a gene
C) the replacement of one nucleotide with another in a gene
-D) both A and B
All of the following cell types are particularly prone to damage from mutation-causing agents except
When Mendel bred green-pea plants with yellow-pea plants, all the offspring had yellow peas. This means that the trait for yellow peas is
If a widow's peak hairline is dominant and a straight hairline is recessive, then
all the children of two straight-hairline parents will have straight hairlines.
A heterozygote has
two different alleles.
The fact that a red-flowered snapdragon bred to a white-flowered snapdragon produces pink-flowered offspring is an example of
The AB blood type in humans is an example of
Human height and skin color are examples of
All of the following statements about sex-linked traits are true except:
They usually affect more females than males.
An example of a polygenic trait is
human skin color.
Genetically modified crops
have contaminated traditional seed supplies with their genes.
What is codominance?
In codominance, there are two alleles, and the heterozygote expresses the traits of both alleles.
Why are recessive sex-linked traits seen more often in males than in females?
Males need only one recessive allele to express a recessive sex-linked trait, whereas females need two recessive alleles.
Which of the following statements regarding the origin of life is false?
The first genes were probably made of DNA, not RNA.
The cyanobacteria were
responsible for introducing substantial amounts of oxygen into Earth's atmosphere.
Which scientist played an important role in the history of biology for promoting the idea that species changed over time (although he attributed this change over time to an incorrect mechanism)?
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Charles Darwin was inspired by his work as a ship's naturalist during a trip to ____.
South America and the GalÃ¡pagos Islands.
Which of the following statements about peppered moths is false?
After pollution control laws were passed, dark moths became more common than light moths in urban areas.
Because organisms with advantageous traits ______ than organisms with other traits, populations evolve to become better adapted to their environments.
leave more offspring
Natural selection may favor traits that help organisms
successfully raise offspring.
- all of the above
If the females of a songbird species prefer to mate with more brightly colored males, and you know this trait is heritable, you would expect (D)
A) sexual selection to occur.
B) males to evolve to become more brightly colored.
C) brightly colored males to survive better in the population.
-D) both A and B
Each of the following adaptations are related to acquiring mates except
camouflage in peppered moths
If we compare closely related rabbit species in tropical and arctic environments, we would expect the tropical species to be ________ in size and to have ________ legs.
Compared to the tropical sun bear, the polar bear has
a lower surface-area-to-volume ratio.
A population of bats evolves because organisms from a separate bat population move into the population. This mechanism of evolution is known as
A population of beetles in which some individuals are blue and some individuals are green evolves by chance because more alleles of one color are transmitted to the next generation than alleles of the other color. This mechanism of evolution is known as
A population of beetles in which some individuals are blue and some individuals are green evolves because the green individuals survive better, and so leave more offspring. This mechanism of evolution is known as
Evolution due to chance describes
When a donkey mates with a horse, a mule is produced. However, mules are sterile. This is an example of
a postzygotic reproductive barrier.
Two species of frogs do not interbreed because one species breeds in March and the other species breeds in May. This is an example of
a prezygotic reproductive barrier.
Two species of insects do not interbreed because their sexual organs will not fit together. This is an example of
a prezygotic reproductive barrier.
The evolution of a large number of species, each adapted to a distinct way of life, from a single ancestor describes
Dogs provide evidence of evolution in that they
come in many breeds that have been shaped through artificial selection.
Whales evolved from
Which of the features below was the first to appear in hominids?
an upright posture
The famous Australopithecus afarensis fossil "Lucy"
How do liposomes resemble real cells?
Liposomes have double membranes similar to cell membranes.
Why was the evolution of autotrophs an important event in the history of life on Earth?
Without autotrophs, heterotrophs would have eaten through their food supply and died out.
What is a species?
A species is a group of organisms whose members can breed with one another, but not with members of other species
What is a heritable trait?
Many traits are determined at least partly by genes and so are heritable - that is, they are passed from parents to offspring
Does natural selection act on genotype or phenotype?
Natural selection acts on an organism's phenotype.
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