Glencoe World History Chapter 7: Early African Civilizations

Glencoe, World History 2010
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Terms in this set (...)

plateau
a relatively high, flat area.
savanna
broad grasslands dotted with small trees and shrubs.
Sahara
the largest desert on Earth located in North Africa.
Great Rift Valley
a region of deep canyons in eastern Africa.
Congo River
waterway that runs through the Congo basin in central Asia.
Kalahari Desert
desert located in southern Africa.
Nubia
region located south of ancient Egypt; freed itself of Egyptian control around 1000 B.C. and became the state of Kush.
Kushites
driven out of Egypt in 663 B.C., these people returned to their original lands in Africa's upper Nile Valley; emerged as a great trading empire with its center at the city of Meroe.
Ethiopia
location of the kingdom of Axum along the Red Sea.
King 'Ezānā
the Axumite ruler who had converted to Christianity and went on to conquer Kush. Axum was an independent state that combines Arab and African cultures with Christianity as its official religion.
subsistence farming
the practice of growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale.
Swahili
a mixed African-Arabic culture that developed along the east coast of Africa; also, the major language used in that area, combining Bantu with Arabic words and phrases.
stateless society
a group of independent villages organized into clans and led by a local ruler or clan head without any central government.
Ghana
the 1st great trading state in West Africa; emerged about A.D. 500; traded iron ore and gold for products from North Africa.
Berbers
nomadic peoples in Africa who carried out much of the trading across the desert in camel caravans.
Sundiata Keita
founder of the African kingdom Mali; helped his country build its fame and power on its gold and salt trade.
Mali
famous West African kingdom built on the gold and salt trade in the mid-1200s.
Timbuktu
famous trading city in the kingdom of Mali; became a center of Islamic learning and culture.
Mansa Mūsā
one of the richest and most powerful king in Mali who ruled from 1312-1337; he doubled the size of the kingdom and divided the land into provinces managed by his appointed governors. He built many mosques and spent gold so lavishly that the price of gold decreased.
Sunni Ali
ruler of Songhai who created a new dynasty, the Sunni, in 1464 and conquered many lands with his continuous military campaigns.
Muhammad Ture
created a new dynasty, the Askia (means "usurper"), by overthrowing the son of Sunni Ali. He was a military commander and devout Muslim who continued Songhai's expansion, creating an empire that stretched 1,000 miles along the Niger River.
Bantu
a family of language spoken in central and southern Africa; a member of any group of the African peoples who speak that language.
Mogadishu
trading post along the Indian Ocean.
Mombasa
trading post along the Indian Ocean.
Kilwa
trading port and magnificent city along the Indian Ocean.
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler of the 14th century who visited Muslim countries and China, recording his impressions.
Zimbabwe
wealthy and powerful state in southern Africa; prospered from the gold trade with the Swahili communities on Africa's east coast.
lineage group
an extended family unit that has combines into a larger community.
matrilineal
tracing lineage through the mother.
patrilineal
tracing lineage through the father.
diviner
a person who is believed to have the power to foretell events.
griot
a special class of African scholars who help keep alive a people's history.
Yoruba
African group in Nigeria that believed that the chief god sent his son Oduduwa down from Heaven to create the 1st humans.
Nigeria
country in west-central Africa; home of the Yoruba people.
Ashanti
people of Ghana who believed in a supreme being called Nyame whose sons were lesser gods with different purposes.
Ife
capital of the Yoruba people in what is now Nigeria.
Benin
country in West Africa; Benin artists produce impressive works in bronze.