Plant Bio Final Exam

In the plant name Zea Mays, which in the name of the genus and which is the name of the species?
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Sucrose is what type of saccharide?A disaccharide.Define monosaccharide.A simple sugar, such as a five-carbon or six-carbon sugar, that cannot be dissociated into smaller sugar particles.Define disaccharide.A carbohydrate formed of two simple sugar molecules linked by a covalent bond; sucrose is an example.Define polysaccharide.A polymer composed of many monosaccharide units joined in a long chain, such as glycogen, starch, and cellulose.The following aids in the breakdown of starch:AmylaseDefine amylase.An enzyme that breaks down starch into smaller units.In creating starch from glucose, the following occurs:Dehydration synthesisDefine dehydration synthesisThe synthesis of a compound or molecule involving the removal of water.Define hydrolysisThe splitting of one molecule into two by additions of the H+ and OH- ions of water.When a newly synthesized polypeptide chain coils into a helix, this is development of what?The secondary structure.Define primary structure.The linear sequence of amino acids of a protein.Define secondary structure.When the polypeptide chain is assembled in the cell and interactions among the various amino acids in the chain cause it to fold into a pattern.Define tertiary structure.In globular proteins, when the secondary structure folds to form the tertiary structure, which forms as a result of complex interactions among the R groups of the individual amino acids.Define quaternary structure.The interaction between two or more polypeptide chains within a protein.A nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a molecule of what?SugarDefine proteinA complex organic compound composed of many (100 or more)amino acids joined by peptide bonds.Define lipidOne of a large variety of nonpolar organic molecules that are insoluble in water (which is polar) but which readily dissolve in nonpolar organic solvents; lipids include fats, oils, steroids, phospholipids, and carotenoids.Energy is released for use by the cell by which of the following:ATP is processed into ADPThe following is where amino acids are linked to form proteins:RibosomesDefine ribosomeA small particle composed of protein and RNA; the site of protein synthesis.Define nucleusA specialized body within the eukaryotic cell, bounded by a double membrane and containing the chromosomes.Define nucleolusA small, spherical body found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; composed chiefly of rRNA that is in the process of being transcribed from copies of rRNA genes; the site of production of ribosomal subunits.Chloroplasts are:Able to synthesize some of the polypeptides they need.Mitochondria are the sites ofChemical breakdown of ATP.Define mitochondriaA double-membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells; contains the enzymes of the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain; the major source of ATP in non-photosynthetic cells.Chemical reduction involves:Gaining an electron.The following is part of the respiratory chain:The citric acid cycleDefine citric acid cycleThe series of reactions that results in the oxidation of pyruvate to hydrogen atoms, electrons, and carbon dioxide. The electrons, passed along electron-carrier molecules, then go through the oxidation phosphorylation and terminal oxidation process. Also called the KREBS CYCLE.Define Calvin cycleThe series of enzymatically mediated photosynthetic reactions during which CO2 is reduced to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and the CO2 acceptor, ribulose 1,5-biphosphate is regenerated. FOR EVERY THREE MOLECULES OF CO2 ENTERING THE CYCLE, A NET GAIN OF ONE MOLECULE OF G3P RESULTS.At the start of respiration, glucose is split into 3-carbon molecules of:PyruvateAerobic respiration takes place mainly in the:MitochondriaComplete oxidation of glucose leads to:Water and carbon dioxide.The following takes place in photosynthesis:Electrons are moved from photosystem II to photosystem IThe following is part of photosynthesis:The Calvin cycledefine glycolysisthe breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.Which is NOT a part of photosynthesis:The Krebs cycle (A.K.A the Citric acid cycle)Water moves from an area of higher water potential to an area of:Lower water potential (and higher solute concentration).What is pure water considered to have a water potential of?0.0What is the pressure resulting from the influx of water into a plant cell called?TurgorDefine plasmolysisSeparation of the protoplast from the cell wall because of the removal of water from the protoplast by osmosis.Define exocytosisA cellular process in which particulate matter or dissolved substances are enclosed in a vesicle and transported to the cell surface; there, the membrane of the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, expelling the vesicle's contents to the outside.True or false: The plasma membrane is hydrophobic on the outside and the inside of the cell but hydrophilic in the center of the membrane.FALSE. CORRECT ANSWER: The plasma membrane is hydrophilic on the outside an inside of the cell but hydrophobic in the center of the membrane.Membrane embedded proteins with carbohydrate groups attached are:GlycoproteinsDefine triglycerideA glycerol ester of fatty acids; the main constituent of fats and oils.Define hemicelluloseA polysaccharide resembling cellulose but more soluble and less ordered; found particularly in cell walls.A molecule that is likely to come into a cell by passive transport is:WaterWhat is a carrier protein that moves one molecule in while moving another out?An antiportDefine symportA carrier protein that moves two molecules in at once.The following process uses up ATP:Active transportActive transport is achieved by setting up what?A proton gradientPlant cells can communicate with adjacent cells through what?PlasmodesmataDefine plasmodesmataThe minute cytoplasmic threads that extend through openings in cell walls and connect the protoplasts of adjacent living cells.In plants, what are the products f meiosis?SporesIn the evolution of seed plants from simpler organisms like algae and mosses, what is the general change concerning gametophyte vs sporophyte phases?The sporophyte became the dominant, major phase, instead of the gametophyte. "Hide the gametophyte."As opposed to a moss, when you look at the large dominant phase of a fern, what you are seeing is what?2NEmbryophytes include all but the following:Algae. Embryophytes include gymnosperms, mosses, and ferns, but NOT algae.Define embryophyteThe bryophytes and vascular plants, both of which produce embryos; a synonym for plants.Define gymnospermA seed plant with seeds not enclosed in an ovary; the conifers are the most familiar group; extant gymnosperms constitute a monophyletic group.What makes an embryophyte different from more basal taxa?In an embryophyte, the egg is fertilized and the embryo develops inside the female reproductive structure, but not in more basal taxa.What two advances in reproduction allow pines to dominate habitats often too dry for ferns?1. Seed coats 2. The sperm in pines converges with the egg via pollination and the pollen tube, instead of swimming through water as with the fern.Name two non-reproductive advances that allow gymnosperms to live away from water.1. Cuticles 2. Roots 3. StomataWhich of the following is not an angiosperm?Pine Apples, potatoes, and garden peas are all angiosperms, but not pines.define angiospermA flowering plant; One of the groups of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary (fruit).Write a short summary of the advantages that the seed plants, the angiosperms and the gymnosperms, have over seedless vascular plants.The seed plants are adapted to live further away from water than seedless plants because seedless plants need water to move sperm to egg, and seed plants don't. Seed plants often have more successful and widespread dispersal due to wind and insect assisted pollination of seeds. Seedless vascular plants on the other hand, are limited in their dispersal area because they lack seeds. Further, seeds can also remain dormant or resting until the ideal time and conditions to germinate arise, giving the plant a higher likelihood of survival.Write a short summary of the reproductive differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms.Gymnosperm spores exist in cones that are almost always transported via wind. Angiosperm spores exist in pollen grains of flowers. Pollen can be transported via wind, but most often occurs via pollinators, particularly bees. In angiosperm, the microgametophyte is the pollen grains and the macrogametophyte is the embryo sac and ovules, which is not the case in gymnosperms. The pine life cycle can take two years, or a year for most other conifers, but the life cycle of many angiosperms may be shorter.A fruit is derived from what reproductive structure?The ovaryHow many sets of chromosomes are in each cell of endosperm?3What structure in seed plants delivers sperm to egg after pollination?The pollen tubeList the three meristems that appear early in the initial development of the plant embryo.1. protoderm - becomes the epidermis 2. ground meristem - becomes ground tissues 3. procambium - becomes vascular tissues (xylem and phloem).Name one of the processes that occur in seed maturation.DessiccationDefine dessiccationThe removal of water from the seedWhat is the main determining difference between monocots and eudicots?Monocots have one large cotyledon and eudicots form two smaller cotyledons.While most of the flowering plants we see are eudicots, several monocots provide much of the food humans eat. Name the ones that provide a large portion of our food.Wheat, rice, and flax.In monocots seeds, most of the stored food is in the tissue called what?EndospermGenerally, in eudicot seeds, the stored food has moved to which part of the embryo?The cotyledonIn different species, different processes or conditions need to be met to end dormancy and allow the seed to germinate. Other than adequate water, warmth, and light, name processes/conditions that some species require.- some seeds won't germinate unless exposed to fire - some seeds need to be eaten by and passed through an animal - some seeds need to crack first - some seeds require a disturbance that causes an opening in the canopy for germination to occur.True of false" Mature xylem are dead.TRUE. Mature xylem are dead.What does the xylem primarily transport?WATER and mineralsmature phloem cells require the assistance of what other cells to live and function?Mature phloem cells require the assistance of companion cells to live and function.Which hormone is responsible for much of a plant's primary growth, as well as its ability to bend toward the light?AuxinIn experiments to demonstrate how auxin works to make the shoot bend toward light, auxin moves to where?Auxin moves to the shaded side.What hormone is a gas released by fruit and other maturing parts of the plant that encourages nearby fruit to ripen?EthyleneWhat plant hormone increases cell division?CytokininThis hormone group stimulates maturation of seeds and fruits. It is also involved in seed germination and extension of the stem internode. Some common dwarf plants lack it, and if added they become taller.GibberellinThis hormone mediates the plant's response to stress, including cold and shorter photoperiods. It signals tree branches to stop growing, seeds to go dormant, and leaves to fall.Abscisic acidThese two hormones counter each other in determining the balance between apical dominance and axillary bud development.Auxin and cytokininWhile hormones act in small concentrations this hormone group is effective in even smaller amounts. They work with other hormones to promote cell expansion and vascular differentiation. It is necessary for pollen tube formation.Brassino steroidsThe ability of a root to grow downward is known as what?Gravitropism or geotropismIf the downward growing root hits a rock and navigates around it, this considered which other tropism?ThigmotropismDefine cation.A positively charged ion.Name two characteristics of a soil that would cause it to hold more water than others.1. Having more organic matter 2. Being composed of smaller particlesName two molecules into which plants incorporate nitrogen.1. amino acids 2. DNA / RNA (nucleic acids) 3. ChlorophyllWhich macronutrients, leading to much of the matter making up plants, are obtained mainly from water and carbon dioxide?Oxygen, Hydrogen, and CarbonName two important macronutrients other than nitrogen that are NOT obtained from water or carbon dioxide.Sulfur and PhosphorusRice, maize, and barley. Which of these three crops were domesticated in the fertile crescent?Barely.Plant cells do not have what?CentrosomesEnergy is commonly transported from one part of a plant to another in the form of what?SucroseThe linear sequence of amino acids in a protein represents what?Primary structureA nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a molecule of what?SugarMitochondria are sites of what?The synthesis of ATPThe following is part of the respiratory chain:GlycolysisDuring photosynthesis, electrons are added to:NADP+The following does not apply to ASEXUAL reproduction of plants:MeiosisAngiosperms do not have what?Angiosperms do not have naked seeds.In mitosis, the following occurs:In mitosis, a metaphase plate occurs.In higher plants, meiosis leads to cells that each have what?One set of chromosomes2n refers to a cell that is what?DiploidIn the first generation cross of a plant homozygous for a dominant characteristic with one homozygous for the recessive, the dominant characteristic is expressed in:All of the progenyIf one of the heterozygous dominant progeny is allowed to self-pollinate, the dominant characteristic is expressed in:3/4 of the progenyA dioecious plant has:A dioecious plant has male and female flowers on different plants.Name two of the processes that occur in seed maturation (not in embryo development or in germination).1. dessiccation 2. seed coat hardeningWhich one of the following is an embryophyte?Bryophytes. A bryophyte is an embryophyte, but laminaria, ulva, and red algae are not.Write two reproductive advantages that angiosperms have over gymnosperms.1. Fruit of angiosperm aid in seed dispersal and flowers attract pollinators 2. Angiosperms have double fertilization and shorter reproductive cycles than many gymnospermsAs opposed to more advanced plants, in a moss, the larger more dominant phase in what?1NThe following is NOT an angiosperm.Spruce. Maple, wheat, and roses are all angiosperms but spruces are not.What is one difference between monocots and eudicots other than the main difference that monocots have one larger cotyledon and eudicots have two smaller cotyledons?Monocots store food for the embryo in the endosperm but eudicots store the food for the embryo in the cotyledons.What is the function of phloem?The phloem transports food from the leaves down the body of the plant.What are membrane embedded proteins with carbohydrate groups attached?Glycoproteins