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Chapter 7 Chemistry
Terms in this set (39)
How are metallic bonds similar to ionic compounds?
form a lattice in the solid state; 8-12 metal atoms surround each metallic atom
How are metallic bonds different?
metal atoms do not share their valence electrons like in a covalent bond; nor do they give or take valence electrons like in a ionic bond. valence electrons are free to move in the overlapping orbitals: not possible in covalent compounds b/c the electron pair bonds are in btw. the atoms, not possible in ionic compounds b/c the electrons are bound to individual ions and held in place w/in crystalline lattices
What is the electron sea model?
all the metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons; these electrons are not held by any one atom so they are free to move from one atom to the next: they are called delocalized electrons
What is a metallic bond?
attraction of metallic cations for delocalized electrons
What are the properties of metallic bonds?
generally durable b/c the cations are strongly attracted to the delocalized electrons; they can be moved easily, but not separated.
What does malleable mean?
able to be hammered or beaten into sheets
What does ductile mean?
able to be drawn into a wire
What are the properties of malleable and ductile?
in general, moderately high melting points and high boiling points; b/c delocalized electrons are already moving, it doesn't take an enormous amount of extra energy to move the cations too; good conductors of heat and electricity
packets of light energy
mixture of elements that has metallic properties
atoms of the original metallic solid replaced by other metal atoms of similar size
formed when small holes, called interstices, in metal crystal are filled with smaller atoms
force that holds two atoms together
electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
positively charged ion attracted to the anion
the negatively charged ion
compound composed of cations and anions combined so that the total positive and negative charges are equal
binary ionic compounds
ionic compounds that contain a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion
ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electric current
3-D geometric arrangement of particles
simplest portion of a crystalline lattice that portrays the 3-D structure of the entire lattice
amount of energy required to separate one mole of the ions in an ionic compound
one mole =
6.02 x 10^23
numbers assigned to the atoms in molecules including molecular ions, to show the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms (aka oxidation state)
formula that provides the simplest ratio of the ions involved
charged group of covalently bonded atoms; charge on this is charge for entire group of atoms, so it acts as a single unit
salt crystal; contains a ratio of water molecules to anhydrous salt
salt crystals without the water molecule
list the 3 types of bonds
metallic, chemical, ionic
list the 8 properties of metals
durable, malleable & ductile, high melting & boiling points, good conductors of heat & electricity, mainly solids at room temperature (except mercury which is liquid at room temperature)
what causes luster
by delocalized electrons interacting with light, absorbing and releasing packets of light energy called photons
two kinds of ionic compounds
oxide and salts
forms when the ionic bond occurs between a metal and oxygen
4 properties of ionic substances
high melting & boiling points, hard, brittle, non conductor of electricity in solid state, but is a conductor in liquid form or as an electrolyte
2 things that affects lattice energy
size of ions bonded and charge of the ion
examples of substitutional alloys
sterling silver, brass, bronze
examples of interstitial alloys
steel, stainless steel
how many basic crystalline shapes are there
3: simple cubic, body centered cubic, and face centered cubic
why is formation of an ionic bond exothermic?
the ions are going from an unstable to stable situation; high potential energy to low potential energy
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