53 terms

Unit 2 Test

Spanish borderlands
multicultural societies
rational Age of Reason; experimenting and scientific discovery; making progress v. going back in Renaissance; Deism; Benjamin Franklin is poster child
Great Awakening
stems from the lack of enthusiasm in churches; sense of unity;
Albany Congress
blueprint for colonial union
Quartering Act
colonists have to feed and house troops
Sugar Act
reinforced Navigation Acts; lowered tax to prevent people from smuggling; still new tax from colonial perspective; tried in admiralty courts
Peace of Paris
put an end to French power and possessions in North America
Proclamation of 1763
no colonial settlements west of line; British didnt want to upset Indians
George Whitefield
displayed dispair; preached faith was essence; conversion is a major event; enthusiastic proponent of Great Awakening
Johnathan Edwards
came from England and saw troubles and non-enthusiasm about church; minister of dangling spider
Stamp Act
tax on stamp to go on printed material; first direct tax on all colonists; document without stamp is void;
Stamp Act Congress
representation in congress; first use of no taxation without representation; boycotts
Townshend Acts
tax on luxury items; authorities could search business for smuggled goods; more protests and boycotts
Boston Massacre
youth in workers in front of customs house tawning English soldiers with snowballs and rocks; one soldier hit with club and soldiers open fire; 5 dead 5 wounded
Tea Act
tea from British East India Tea Company was in financial struggle bc of smuggled Dutch tea; now cheaper than Dutch tea; clamp down on smuggling; doesn't help
Boston Tea Party
men dress up as Mowhawks boarded ships and unloaded tea into Boston Harbor; Benjamin Franklin did not support
Intolerable Acts
punishing Boston; closing port; quartering; putting restrictions on government
First Continental Congress
find a way to get British to back down; "Association"; will meet again
Battle of Lexington and Concord
General Gage hears colonists are getting arms and sends redcoats to blow up arm house; go through town of Lexington
2nd Continental Congress
reps from all 13 colonies there; still no talk of independence; sent peace petition to George III;
continental army
military called on troops; George Washington named commander; minutemen
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense; target King George III and monarchy; people should have some say; major influence
belief that G-d created the world and then let the people do what they wanted
virtual representation
members are representing colonists in Parliament without the colonists actually being there; colonists views are represented
parliamentary sovereignty
English ruling classes viewed Parliament from a historical perspective; insisted that Parliament was the dominant element within the constitution
George Grenville
in charge of reducing England's debt, said colonists would have to contribute to maintenance of army; steered the Sugar Act
Quebec Act
Parliament wanted a to establish a new civil government in Canada; failed to create an elective assembly; awarded French Roman catholics a big voice in political affairs; Americans thought that Parliament wanted to deny them this region and constitutional rights
Battle of Bunker Hill
Americans cornered British but still lost because they ran out of ammunition
general who surrendered British troops at Yorktown
Battle of Yorktown
British forces are consolidated on VA coast; after 3 weeks British surrender; French help
claimed that perfection was possible; Age of Reason
Treaty of Paris
negotiated by John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams; Britain recognizes the independence of US; MS River is western boundary of US; Spain receives FL; US fishing rights on Canadian coast; receive British merchant debts and loyalist property
Sons of Liberty
group of men formed to enforce boycott on all English goods
Daughters of Liberty
group of women formed to enforce boycott on all English goods
Battle of Saratoga
huge American defeat; French now think Americans can really win war
Lord North
thought the war was unwinnable for British; agree to terms of American except independence
Olive Branch Petition
adopted by Continental Congress in July 1775 in attempt to avoid war with Britain; affirmed American loyalty to GB; prevent conflict
Committees of Correspondance
keeping in touch with other colonies to give examples of British injustice; sometimes intimidate and destroy property
itinerant preachers
traveling revivalist ministers of the Great Awakening; charismatic; spread revivalism throughout America
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin's plan; Grand Council- elected delegates to oversee matters of common defense; western expansion, and Indian affairs; president for colonies; failed
Edmund Burke
one of America's last friends in Parliament
George Washington
ace of war because knew soldiers just had to fight another day; commander of Continental Army
Battle at King's Mountain
most vicious fighting in the Revolution; Americans decimated British soldiers
William Pitt
British general that though England and Europe should be fought for in America; took command of army and navy; created national debt; headed government again after Rockingham
George III
physhco monarch of England
Pontiac's Rebellion
proved that Britain was unable to defend colonies; Pontiac and other Indians attacked Detroit, PA, and VA
Charles Townshend
made important policy decisions when Pitt was sick; started Townshend Revenue Acts
Declarations of the Causes & Necessity for Taking Up Arms
Parliament declares its power over the colonies; colonists ignore bc of repeal of Stamp Act
Thomas Jefferson
drafted Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
listed specific grievances against George III and his government; refers to John Locke; proves they have no choice but to fight; references taxation acts
Benjamin Franklin
poster child of enlightenment; created Albany Plan of Union; negotiated Treaty of Paris in Britain;
Sam Adams
refused to accept that the repeal of the Townshend Acts secured American liberty; genuine revolutionary
John Adams
negotiated Treaty of Paris in Britain