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Media literacy

ability to understand and make productive use of media

media criticism

analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, societies, and cultures

career prep

use of media by students who want to explore media careers

critic vs. prep

critic- harsh; unrealistic
prep- simplistic; vital

mediated comm

messages conveyed through interposed devices rather than face-to-face


interposed device used to transmit messages

mediated interpersonal communication

sharing of personal messages through an interposed device

converging communication media

merging of phones and internet


merging of technologies, industries, and content, especially within the realms of computer, telephone, and mass media

cultural imperialism

displacement of nation's customs with any other country

foreigners dont always like us media

economies of scale

savings that accrue with mass production

large numbers=less cost


combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts (buisness)


promoting a product in one form to sell it in some other form

group ownership

aquisition of the same type of buisness in more than one market area by one company


large companies involved in different types of buisnesses

vertical integration

buisiness models in which a company owns different parts of the same industry

antitrust laws

laws that prohibit monopolisitic practices in restraint of trade

horizontal integration

corporate growth through the aquisition of different types of buisnesses

adversarial relationship

relationship in which 2 parties contend with or oppose eachother (US---> media + gov)

4th estate: press as an unofficial 4th branch of gov

what is the most common type of integration

combined integration

how does media affect elections?

only ppl with money can compete because it is so expensive

audience and media

audience is final arbiter of meaning
-has economic clout
-acceptance establishes new technology
-organized audience makes a difference

impact issues
legal issues
ethical issues

how media affects society and people in it
libel; invasion of privacy
morality of media


imitation of behavior in medua

content analysis

research method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment

survey methods

research methods that rely on questionairres to collect research data

random sampling

method that ensures that every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being chosen

selective exposure

process by which people seek out messages that are consistent with their attitudes

selective perception

process by which people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently

selective retention

process by which people with different view remember the same event differently

opinion leaders

well-informed people who help others interpret media messages

two-step flow

communication process in which media affects travel through opinion leaders

american solider studies

-documentary films for military orientation
-educational movies

applied research

(conducted by industry)

media investigations devoted to practical, commercial purposes


viewers develop emotional neutrality in the face of real life acts of violence

powerful-effects model

model that predicts that media will have swift and potent influence on behavior

minimal-effects model

little influence on behavior

mixed effects model

combination of influences

flow theories

explanations of the way effects travel from the mass media to their audiences

bullet theory

implies that media effects flow directly from the media to an individual

multi-step flow

complex interaction of media effects

social learning theory

people learn by observing others


process by which a child learns the norms of society

individual differences theory

predicts that people with different characteristics will be affected in different ways

diffusion of innovations theory

different types of people will adopt new ideas at different times

cultivation theories

media shapes how people view the world

agenda setting theory

predicts the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public

cumulative effects theory

media have profound effects over time through redundancy

uses and gratifications theory

looks at the ways media consumers choose media to meet their needs

cultural studies

research based on careful observation and thought rather than on controlled experiments or statistics

media ecology

school of cultural study that suggests that media make up an ecological system for humans

gender studies

research that looks at how the media deal with male and female roles

political/economical analysis

theory that predicts that a culture's exchange system will influence its values

third person effect

media affects other people more than oneself
-violence leads to aggression
-aggression leads to violence viewing
-both are products of a 3rd condition like personality or intelligence

catharsis theory

idea that viewing violence actually reduces violent behavior


2 things occur at the same time, more often than chance would lead one to expect

seditious libel laws

laws established in colonial America that made it illegal to criticize government or its representatives

mercantile press

newspapers that provided news of business and shipping

federalist papers

essays that explained the new federal government to early americans; published in 1788 as The Federalist

partisan press

newspapers owned or supported by political parties

editorial page

section of newspaper reserved for the opinion of pieces

hard news

stories about current events that have impact on people's lives

feature news

stories directed towards human interest

penny press

inexpensive, advertise-supported papers that appeared in the 1830s
-Benjamin Day
-NY Sun
-1 cent


inexpensive paper

news hole

total amount of space in a paper that can be devoted to editorial content vs advertising


exaggeration and lurid elements to produce a startling effect


writing style that separates facts from opinions


line at the beginning of a story giving author's name

inverted pyramid

news style that packs info into first paragraph

investigative journalism

reporting that uncovers information that sources have tried to conceal


paper characterized by a smaller size than a standard paper, a single fold, and abundant photos


one company that owns same type of company in more than one market area

-Ben Franklin owned 1st us chain
-Edward Willis Stripps- founder of first modern paper chain

Boston Newsletter

-john campbell
-Boston Gazette
-published by colonial government
-license to publish
-seditious libel laws


-4 pages
-paper and labor expensive

John Peter Zenger

-NY weekly
-government criticism
-not guilty
-first amendment in 1791

Samuel Morse

-wire service
-six ny papers shared correspondant to save money

the quality press

ny times-1896
wall street journal-1889

first tabloid


canons of journalism

1923- American Society of Newspaper Editors
-canons of journalism
--truth, etc

William Randolph Hearst

NY Journal
-like inquirer
-owned chain
--2 wiring services
--20 papers


books with parchment in 1st century Rome

technological determinism

theory that states that the intro of new technology changes society
-changed ORAL to LITERATE culture


books sold to general public




dictionaries, encyclopedias


information people need for specialized occupations

aquisition editors

responsible for obtaining books to be published


author's share of the net amount of the works revenue


works with author going over each chpt and suggests revision


oversees the process of turning manuscript to book


polishes manuscript and prepares for type setting

minority publishers

target particular audiences

university presses

publisher affiliated with an institution of higher education

small presses and others

few employees and facilities

vanity press

requires authors to pay full costs of producing their own books

online publishers

"supported self-publishing" through websites
-less expensive


features around 100,000 book titles

midlist authors

dont make best seller list but have respectable sales

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