99 terms

Communication in Society--Shaw

Media literacy
ability to understand and make productive use of media
media criticism
analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, societies, and cultures
career prep
use of media by students who want to explore media careers
critic vs. prep
critic- harsh; unrealistic
prep- simplistic; vital
mediated comm
messages conveyed through interposed devices rather than face-to-face
interposed device used to transmit messages
mediated interpersonal communication
sharing of personal messages through an interposed device
converging communication media
merging of phones and internet
merging of technologies, industries, and content, especially within the realms of computer, telephone, and mass media
cultural imperialism
displacement of nation's customs with any other country

foreigners dont always like us media
economies of scale
savings that accrue with mass production

large numbers=less cost
combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts (buisness)
promoting a product in one form to sell it in some other form
group ownership
aquisition of the same type of buisness in more than one market area by one company
large companies involved in different types of buisnesses
vertical integration
buisiness models in which a company owns different parts of the same industry
antitrust laws
laws that prohibit monopolisitic practices in restraint of trade
horizontal integration
corporate growth through the aquisition of different types of buisnesses
adversarial relationship
relationship in which 2 parties contend with or oppose eachother (US---> media + gov)

4th estate: press as an unofficial 4th branch of gov
what is the most common type of integration
combined integration
how does media affect elections?
only ppl with money can compete because it is so expensive
audience and media
audience is final arbiter of meaning
-has economic clout
-acceptance establishes new technology
-organized audience makes a difference
impact issues
legal issues
ethical issues
how media affects society and people in it
libel; invasion of privacy
morality of media
imitation of behavior in medua
content analysis
research method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment
survey methods
research methods that rely on questionairres to collect research data
random sampling
method that ensures that every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being chosen
selective exposure
process by which people seek out messages that are consistent with their attitudes
selective perception
process by which people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently
selective retention
process by which people with different view remember the same event differently
opinion leaders
well-informed people who help others interpret media messages
two-step flow
communication process in which media affects travel through opinion leaders
american solider studies
-documentary films for military orientation
-educational movies
applied research
(conducted by industry)

media investigations devoted to practical, commercial purposes
viewers develop emotional neutrality in the face of real life acts of violence
powerful-effects model
model that predicts that media will have swift and potent influence on behavior
minimal-effects model
little influence on behavior
mixed effects model
combination of influences
flow theories
explanations of the way effects travel from the mass media to their audiences
bullet theory
implies that media effects flow directly from the media to an individual
multi-step flow
complex interaction of media effects
social learning theory
people learn by observing others
process by which a child learns the norms of society
individual differences theory
predicts that people with different characteristics will be affected in different ways
diffusion of innovations theory
different types of people will adopt new ideas at different times
cultivation theories
media shapes how people view the world
agenda setting theory
predicts the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public
cumulative effects theory
media have profound effects over time through redundancy
uses and gratifications theory
looks at the ways media consumers choose media to meet their needs
cultural studies
research based on careful observation and thought rather than on controlled experiments or statistics
media ecology
school of cultural study that suggests that media make up an ecological system for humans
gender studies
research that looks at how the media deal with male and female roles
political/economical analysis
theory that predicts that a culture's exchange system will influence its values
third person effect
media affects other people more than oneself
-violence leads to aggression
-aggression leads to violence viewing
-both are products of a 3rd condition like personality or intelligence
catharsis theory
idea that viewing violence actually reduces violent behavior
2 things occur at the same time, more often than chance would lead one to expect
seditious libel laws
laws established in colonial America that made it illegal to criticize government or its representatives
mercantile press
newspapers that provided news of business and shipping
federalist papers
essays that explained the new federal government to early americans; published in 1788 as The Federalist
partisan press
newspapers owned or supported by political parties
editorial page
section of newspaper reserved for the opinion of pieces
hard news
stories about current events that have impact on people's lives
feature news
stories directed towards human interest
penny press
inexpensive, advertise-supported papers that appeared in the 1830s
-Benjamin Day
-NY Sun
-1 cent
inexpensive paper
news hole
total amount of space in a paper that can be devoted to editorial content vs advertising
exaggeration and lurid elements to produce a startling effect
writing style that separates facts from opinions
line at the beginning of a story giving author's name
inverted pyramid
news style that packs info into first paragraph
investigative journalism
reporting that uncovers information that sources have tried to conceal
paper characterized by a smaller size than a standard paper, a single fold, and abundant photos
one company that owns same type of company in more than one market area

-Ben Franklin owned 1st us chain
-Edward Willis Stripps- founder of first modern paper chain
Boston Newsletter
-john campbell
-Boston Gazette
-published by colonial government
-license to publish
-seditious libel laws
-4 pages
-paper and labor expensive
John Peter Zenger
-NY weekly
-government criticism
-not guilty
-first amendment in 1791
Samuel Morse
-wire service
-six ny papers shared correspondant to save money
the quality press
ny times-1896
wall street journal-1889
first tabloid
canons of journalism
1923- American Society of Newspaper Editors
-canons of journalism
--truth, etc
William Randolph Hearst
NY Journal
-like inquirer
-owned chain
--2 wiring services
--20 papers
books with parchment in 1st century Rome
technological determinism
theory that states that the intro of new technology changes society
-changed ORAL to LITERATE culture
books sold to general public
dictionaries, encyclopedias
information people need for specialized occupations
aquisition editors
responsible for obtaining books to be published
author's share of the net amount of the works revenue
works with author going over each chpt and suggests revision
oversees the process of turning manuscript to book
polishes manuscript and prepares for type setting
minority publishers
target particular audiences
university presses
publisher affiliated with an institution of higher education
small presses and others
few employees and facilities
vanity press
requires authors to pay full costs of producing their own books
online publishers
"supported self-publishing" through websites
-less expensive
features around 100,000 book titles
midlist authors
dont make best seller list but have respectable sales