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pointed part or peak on the occlusal surface of posterior teeth and Incisal ridges of canines.

Cusp ridge

each cusp has four ridges, named after the circumferential tooth surface they extend towards.

Triangular Ridge

located on each major cusp of posterior teeth. Extends from cusp tip toward the depression in the middle of the occlusal surface. The mesiolingual cusp on maxillary molars has two triangular ridges.

Cusp Slopes

(mesial and distal cusp ridges) inclined surfaces or slopes that converge at the cusp tip to form an angle when viewed from the facial or lingual aspect

Oblique Ridge

ridge found only on maxillary molars. Crosses the occlusal surface diagonally made up of one triangular ridge of the mesiolingual and the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp.

Buccal Ridge

subtle ridge running cervico-occlusally on the buccal surface of premolars.

Lingual Ridge

present only on cuspids, runs from cingulum to cusp tip of cuspids

Marginal Ridge

Located on mesial and distal border of the lingual surface and converge toward the Cingulum on incisor and canine teeth. On posterior teeth it is on the mesial and distal borders of the occlusal surface


- bulge on the cervical third of the lingual surface of the crown on anterior teeth

Cervical Ridge

subtle ridge running mesiodistally in the cervical third of the buccal surface of the crown on permanent molars and all primary teeth


- three small tubercles formed from one of the three facial developmental lobes on the Incisal edges of the newly erupted incisors. Worn down on adults.


numerous minute horizontal ridges on the enamel of newly erupted permanent teeth, overlapping of layers of enamel


broad depression or valley on the occlusal surface of posterior teeth


-inclines formed by triangular ridges that converge at the depth of the sulcus
-important escape-ways for food when the teeth of the mandible chew from side to side.

Development Groove

sharply defined narrow linear depressions formed during tooth devo separating the lobes of a tooth

Central Devo Groove

buccolingual center of the tooth sulcus and runs mesiodistally

Fossa Devo Groove

end of central groove, splits towards the corners of the tooth, named for corner pointed towards such as distobuccal or mesiolingual

Supplemental groove

small irregularly placed grooves on occlusal surface


-narrow cleft or crevice at the depth of any groove cause by incomplete fusion of enamel during tooth devo
-often the location of decay


small hollow or depression found between the marginal ridges on the lingual surfaces of anterior teeth and on occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth


occur at the depths of a fossa where two or more grooves join, two cusp teeth have two; three cusp teeth have three pits at the mesial, central and distal


the top of the root

Apical foramina

where the nerves and blood vessels enter into the tooth pulp


neck of the tooth that serves as border of the anatomic crown and root

Root Trunk

part of the root of a multi-rooted tooth next to the Cementoenamel junction that has not yet split.


- place on a multirooted tooth where the root trunk divides into separate roots
-called bifurcation on two rooted teeth, and trifurcation on three rooted teeth

Furcal region

- region between two or more roots, apical to the furcation point
-When viewed from the mesial or distal aspect the cervical line of a tooth curve is convex toward Incisal or occlusal surfaces

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