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Chapter 13 AP Euro
Terms in this set (52)
1. Lorenza Valla
A. During the renaissance, as Italy was becoming more secular, people like Valla began to see life as a thing to be enjoyed and not as a painful pilgrimage to God. He defends pleasure of the senses saying it is the highest good. Valla is also credited as being the father of historical criticism. He proved that a document giving the papal-states power over territory in Western Europe was forged.
A. The foremost scholar of the 16th century and a writer with international contacts. Desiderious Erasmus was a Dutch Humanist. He said that educations is a means to reform and Christianity is in inner attitude of heart or spirit not special ceremonies.
3. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
A. A Florentine writer and a humanist. Write an essay called On the Dignity of Man. He said that since humans were made in the likeness of god their role in universe was between beasts and angels but because of the divine image in him his potential is limitless. Although religious art became scarce, the religiousness of the people remained.
A. An author who in 1528 wrote The Courtier, which had a profound impact on society. The book sought train young men into gentlemen. He writes that an upper class man should know a broad range of subjects like: dance, music, art, wrestling, singing, and above all he should be able to read and write eloquently. The courtier became the model for the upper class gentleman.
A. The author of the most famous Renaissance book- The Prince. The book is about political power and how rulers should gain, maintain, and increase power. As a he humanist he believed man was inherently selfish and the ruler should manipulate people by any means necessary. He said that a rulers decision could be amoral if necessary.
6. Giovanni Boccaccio
A. This man was a secularist writer in the renaissance period. He wrote the Decameron, which describes a reality. It is about ambitious merchants, lecherous friars, and cuckolded husbands, and an over all very realistic and materialistic society. This reality was not frowned upon, and the materialism was justified, showing the secularism of the society.
7. Sir Thomas More
A. Well Educator Lawyer, Christian, and Humanist, worked under Henry VIII as ambassador to Flanders. In 1516 wrote Utopia (means nowhere), which had radical and revolutionary view of society, Describes the perfect community were education (in Greco-Roman classics mainly) never ceases, adults divide their days between work (labor/business) and education. No one owns anything, complete social equality. Suggests that basic problems in society are caused by greed.
A. Giotto di Bondone was a Florentine, and worked as both a painter and architect.
B. Sometimes called the "father of western pictoral art", his painting turned from the flatter, more iconic Byzantine style to a more naturalistic approach. A firm proponent of using observation of nature to learn about art, his painting emphasized some major characteristics of modern representational art; sculptural solidity, weight/mass of figures, and dimensionality.
C. One of the first artists to use realism.
2. B. Cellini
A. Benvenuto Cellini was a Florentine goldsmith and sculptor and a prime example of individualism in the sense that people in the renaissance were aware of their own genius. He wrote a book and the preface states how he is a genius and smarter than most. He knew he was a genius and he wanted everyone else to know it to.
3. Leonardo da Vinci
A. Born in Vinci near Florence. Made Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. "Saw art from a scientific point of view and science from an artists point of view. Some people thought he was gay.
A. Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520), was born in Urbino to Giovanni Sanzio, a poet and painter in the court of Guidobaldo Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino.
B. Raphael Sanzio eventually took over the decoration of all the papal apartments and made history with his meteoric rise to fame.
C. So revered was Italian Renaissance painter, Raphael Sanzio, that he earned the sobriquet "Prince of Painters." He died in 1520 at the age of 37 and was buried in the Pantheon.
D. His portraits and Madonnas exemplify the Rennaisance style. His portrait of Castiglione is famous. He was the most sought after portrait painter of the Rennaisance.
5. Filippo Brunelleschi
A. This man was a famous architect of the Renaissance period in In Italy. He is most famous for his building of the dome on the Florence Cathedral. He was commissioned by the Florentine cloth merchants to do so, in order to show off their power.
B. (1377-1446)- Built the dome of the cathedral of Florence. Example of how the artist commissioned powerful groups like guilds and religious confraternities in early Renaissance. Pioneered in perspective painting.
6. Lorenzo Ghiberti
A. Lorenzo Ghiberti was a Rennaisance architect. Was selected by Flippo Brunelleschi to design the bronze doors of the Baptistry. He was big on individuality, and boasted about how he was chosen to design those doors.
B. Example of how the artist commissioned powerful groups like guilds and religious confraternities in early Renaissance. Example of how artists were rich, got 200 florins a year compared to the head of the city government, who earned 500 florins.
A. He was a sculptor in the Rennaisance. His bronze sculpture of King David was the first freestanding bronze statue of a human in the Europe since ancient times. (1386-1466) He exerted the greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. Painted in the realism sense, revived classical figure, with its balance and self awareness (realistic way of painting a portrait, people don't look perfect when they are in real life situations) as opposed to the medieval paintings that focused on the spirituality of the individual.
A. (1475-1564): The most influential sculptor/artist from Florence (or even Italy or the world). Most famous for sculpting David, painting the roof of the Sistine Chapel, and painting The Last Judgment. Didn't paint like realism, painted his figures strong and heroic. People recognized his genius, and even termed him "divine.""
A. This man was a renaissance painter. He is famous for painting themes from classical mythology. He also captured the ideal of what beauty for woman was in the renaissance. (1445-1510) Florentine painter during the early Renaissance (Quattrocento). Was under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, his work is known to represent the linear grace of early Renaissance painting.
10. Jan van Eyck
A. He was a dutch painter know for his oil paintings that were highly symbolic. They focused on either secular or religious themes. Misattributed with inventing oil painting, but he is known as the father of oil painting because he was one of the first to use it. He used it to create detailed panel paintings and to achieve remarkable affects through the use of glazes.
A. He was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western Art. Was so famous at the time that the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V visited his workshop and picked up the Titian's dropped paintbrush, demonstrating his respect for Titian.
12. Artemisia Gentileschi
A. One of the first successful women painters in the middle ages (impressive because women artists were not easily accepted), the first female painter to be a member of Florentine Academy of Design. Today considered one of the most accomplished painters of her generation, she painted [many] pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and the bible. Most famous for her picture Judith slaying Holofernes. Trained by her father.
A. Literally means "rebirth," It is the rebirth of the culture lost during the Middle Ages. Spans from the 14th-16th Century. Started in Italy during the 14th century then spread to all of Europe during the 15th century. Main impact on the elite class. Lost classics were revived again.
2. Middle Ages
A. The middle ages are the time period ( 1000 years ) between the ancient world and the Renaissance. There was an abandonment of the ancient classics during this time.
3. Ciompi revolts of 1378
A. One of a group of peasant revolts ate the time. In Florence The Ciompi, poor property-less workers, revolted.
A. Resented the urban nobility for excluding them from power in the communes. The Popolo wanted places in government and equality in taxation. They took the communes by force and tried to establish Republics. However, they practiced the same political exclusion.
A. Leaders of mercenary military detachments (or companies) in Italy from the 14th through 16th centuries in the service of individual rulers and popes.
B. The condottieri became very important in the continuous warfare between the Italian states. In the 14th century most of the recruits were foreign knights, but at the end of the 14th century Italian condottieri began displacing the foreigners. Some condottieri seized power in cities and established tyrannies, like Francesco Sforza in Milan. The condottieri, who plundered and devastated Italy, contributed to the weakening of the country. In the late 15th century, when infantry and artillery became more important than cavalry (the main force of the condottieri), the institution of the condottieri gradually began to disappear.
A. The northern Italian city-states were communes. They are sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economical independence from local nobles. The people who governed the communes became a new social class- the Urban nobility.
A. After failed attempt by Popolos to make a republic, Signori, one-man rulers/ despots along with oligarchies triumphed in Italian city-states.
8. Girolamo Savonarola
A. A Dominican friar who predicted the French invasion of Florence. In his sermons he attacked the Medici family as well as Pope Alexander VI, saying that they were corrupt. For a time he the public support, he was made the religious leader of Florence and his sermons contributed to the fall of the Medici family. Eventually the public grew tired of him and he was excommunicated then executed by the Pope. His career shows the instability of Venice that it was susceptible to invasion and that common people didn't have the same world views as the intellectual and commercial elite.
A. Involves the basic concern with the material world instead of the supernatural. During the Renaissance Italy became more secular and less religious. For example the practice of usury (loaning without intrest) had always been frowned upon, but during the renaissance the practice became widespread.
A. In the middle ages, since Christianity prohibited self-absorption talented people could not be proud of their individuality and talents but in the renaissance they were allowed to. Individualism stressed uniqueness and genius and the full development of ones skilled. This led to a thirst for fame, which became the foundation of the renaissance.
A. Means the 1500's, was as tome of dazzling creativity and art.
A. A style developed during the Late Renaissance gaining popularity in much of Europe and northern Italy, mannerism featured the use of distorted figures in complex, impossible poses, and strange artificial colors.
A. A tax made by Charles VII of France on salt. This tax along with the taille- Land tax- strengthened royal finances and was the crowns chief source on income.
14. Justices of the peace
A. Unpaid landowners whom the Tudors of England counted on for help governing. They were influential landowners in the shires who handled the work of local government. They punished criminals, enforced laws, set wages, and checked on peoples moral behavior.
A. Form of government in Italian City States after failed attempts at republic. Oligarchies are the rule of merchant aristocracies.
A. The princely courts of the Signori and the oligarchies were the center of political power in the 15th Century. "A court was the space and personnel around a prince as he made laws, received ambassadors, made appointments, took his meals, and proceeded through the streets" (pg. 416). The courts gave the rulers an opportunity to flaunt their wealth and power in front of other rulers.
17. Habsburg-Valois Wars
A. Series of wars between the Holy Roman Empire and France, Italy was often the battleground. Named after the dynasties of the two places. The Italian city-states suffered immensely form these wars, especially when Charles V sacked Rome. They were invaded by both empires because of the failures of the city-states to unite and become on country.
18. Charles V
A. Succeeded his grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor. Ruled during the Habsburg-Valois conflicts. He sacked Rome in 1527 at the expense of Italy, which suffered severely.
A. During the Renaissance recovered lost manuscripts and statues and were studied in a humanist way. This means that they were studied to better understand man's nature and not necessarily made into a Christian lesson. However, they were still skeptical about the credibility of pagan others.
20. Christian humanists
A. Christian humanism is the humanism in northern europe. It spread to the north because students went to italy to study humanism and brought the ideas back with them. A difference between christian humanism and italian humanism is that christian humanism bases its ideas of hebrew and greek texts as opposed to ancient texts of greece and rome. They wanted to blend christian ideas with classical ones in order to reform life.
21. Printing press
A. Invented around 1454 by Johann Gutenberg and a few others, a new movable type of printing, also known as the printing press, allowed for more efficient and cheap printing. Because of movable type people could actually afford books, and governments could post flyers or send letters, this led to: 1) Many lay people could read the bible (could have helped increase the protestant cause). 2) Governments could easily announce declarations of war, treaties, and spread propaganda, propaganda emphasized differences in groups, leading to the formation of distinct political parties. 3) Lay People became educated and studied more subjects. 4) Spread of more pornography. 5) It Revolutionized Communication The Printing Press helped transition Europe from the dark ages to the Renaissance.
22. Gutenberg's Bible
A. This was the major book printed with movable type printing. It sparked a revolution. All of a sudden everyone was able to read the bible and other peoples ideas for themselves. This enables the start of the reformation. In 1456.
A. (refers to 1400's) and along with the 1500's it was the period with most creative painting, architecture, and sculpture. Had the main characteristics of High Renaissance art- classical balance, harmony, restraint. Included amazing artists like Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Raphael (1483-1520,) and Michelangelo (1475-1564) (all were in Rome).
A. Contrary to the previous Middle age tradition were an artist submitted his work anonymously to the church for a small fee, artists had patrons, or people individuals who paid artist for the work as a way to glorify themselves. Because artists no longer submitted their work anonymously, and because individual people held art rather than a cooperation like the church, patron ideology led to the spread of individualism. (At this point art is still mainly religious).
25. Perspective in painting
A. Perspective in art was a new concept pioneered by Piero della Francesca and Andrea Mantega in the renaissance. Perspective is the linear representation of 3D images on a flat surface. B. Flippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) and Peiro della Francesca pioneered in perspective painting. Emerged around the same time as realism (realism=more realistic paintings than spiritual paintings)
26. Gens or nation
A. This is a religious or ethnic group, and it distinguishes one person from another. It groups its people by language, religion, and customs. They also believed that these people shared the same blood.
A. Perspective in "Order" is what is used in art to create the feeling of depth in a painting. Paolo Uccello, an Italian painter, was extremely adept at this.
28. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
A. In order to restore power to the french crown Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, making him higher than the papacy, giving him the power to appoint bishops which was a source of income. This control helped solidify the power of the french crown.
B. Charles VII was beginning France's long recovery from the loss of the hundred year war (bcuz of war: depopulated, commercially ruined, agriculturally weak), he made taxes on salt and land, and assembles a big army. The most important thing he did was publish the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, asserting the superiority of a general council over the papacy, giving the French crown control over the appointment of bishops, and taking ecclesiastical revenue from the pope. This made the French crown richer and greatly increased its power.
29. Court of the Star Chamber
A. The royal council, the center of authority in England controlled executive, legislative, and judicial matters. They dealt with aristocratic threats through a judicial branch known as the court of Star Chamber because of the stars painted on the ceiling of the room. The court applied principles of Roman law, and was often cruel, accused persons were not allowed to see evidence against them, sessions were secret, torture could be applied to extract confessions, and juries were not called. Although cruel, the council effectively reduced aristocratic trouble making.
30. Wars of the Roses
A. 1455-1471: While under rule of Henry IV supporters of the ducal houses of York and Lancaster wages civil war, called the war of the roses because York symbol was a white rose and Lancastrians was a red rose. The chronic disorder hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry. This war along with Henry IV's bad rule made the monarchy sank very low. The Yorkists won and this led the reconstruction of the English monarchy.
A. A republic is a form of government in which officials elected by citizens make decisions as group. The merchant oligarchies and condittiero pretended to be republics, but in fact small groups held all the power.
32. Medici Family
A. They made their money in banking and textiles.
B. First significant patrons of Florence, and they were leaders.
C. The most powerful family in Florence, controlled almost all of banking, and although Florence was termed a Republic, power was actually held by the Medici family. When the French King Charles VIII invaded Florence, and Pero de' Medici of the Medici family went to the French camp to seek peace, the Florentines exiled the Medici and restored an actual republic. This was the end of the Medici dynasty.
33. Structure of the Church
B. 200- College of Cardinals
E. Priests (90% + make up the structure of the Church jobs)
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