3 type of respiration:
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Terms in this set (82)
Atoms are made 3 things?
molecule that hold 2 or more atoms together?
Ionic bond transfer of electrons from one atom to another where they have --electronegativity?
covalent bond is the --in electrons between atoms of the -- electronegativity?
covalent bonds con be categorized into to groups?
Non-polar covalent bond?
polar covalent bond? formation of what?
H- bond weak or strong?
-protons, neutrons and electrons
-chemical bonds
-polar and non-polar
-equal sharing of electrons between two similiare electronegativity
-unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms with different electronegativity, dipole
-weak, H bond is attached to a highly electronegative atom and another negative charge molecule (F,O,N)
1. Excellent Solvent -water is easy to be dissolved
2. High Heat Capacity- can change its temperature due to gain or loss electrons
3. Ice Floats- water expands as it freezes and become less dense then its liquid form
4. Cohesion Surface Tension- water is attracted to like substances due to H bonds. It makes high surface tension so bugs can walk on water
5. Adhesion- water is attracted to unlike substances to
Monosaccharides 2 forms OH up= OH down Disaccharides joined together by what what are the three disacchride and there subunits Polysacharides-single sugar molecule -alpha and beta ///beta//alpha -2 sugars joined together by glycosidic bond -sucrose(g,f), lactose(glusocse, galactose), maltose (glucose,glucose) -many monosachrides joined together:polymerCarbohydrates also include: starch is type of glucose? function? Glycogen is type of glucose? function? Cellulose is type of glucose? function? Chitin is type of glucose? similare to which other one?-strach, glycogen, cellulose, chitin -alpha, store energy in plants -alpha, store energy in animals -beta, structure of walls of plant cells -each beta glucose is attached to a N groupLipids are hydrophobic or phillic Triacyclglerol structure? Saturated fats? healthy or unhealthy? straight or bent chain? Unsaturated fats? healthy or unhealthy?straight or bent chain? Phospholipid structure? amphipathic? steroid structure? example?-phobic -3 fatty acid attahced to a glycerol -no double bond, unhealthy, straight -double bond, healthy, kink -2 fatty acid attached to a phosphate , R group to glyerol -both polar and nonpolar -(3) 6 membraned rings and (1) 5 membraned ring// hormones and cholesterolWaxes are used for steroid examples how many rings Carotenoids used for Porphyrins --joined pyrrole rings that often complex with a metal Adipocytes are specilized -- cells two types of these cells White fat cells are comprised of --- with thing layers of cytoplams Brown fat cells have a cytoplasm, lipid droplets scattered throughout, and lots of ---? Glycolipids are the same as phospholipids but instead of a phosphate group it has-- group lipolipids are soluble or unsoluble?-protective coating on the skin -sex hormones, cholesterol, 4 -used for pigments which produce colors in plants and animals -4 -fat -white, brown fat cells -triglyerides -mitochondria -carbohydrate group -insolubleIn cold weather the cell membrane becomes -. To avoid this --and -and---- are added into the membrane In hot weather the cell membrane becomes -.To avoid the membrane from collapsing -- added. Fatty acid tails are-- to form a straight line-rigid, cholesterold, mono and polysaccharide fatty acids -flexible, cholesterol, saturatedAmino acids are joined together by amino acid structure-peptide bonds -amino, carboxyl, side chainConjugated- simple protein + non protein Lipoprotein Mucoprotein chromoprotein metalloprotein nucleoprotein-protein bound to lipid -protein bound to carbohydrate -protein bound to pigmented molecule -protein bound to a metal ion protein bound to nucleic acid- sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds -hydrogen bonding between amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids (alpha helix or beta sheet) -amino acid R groups -of two or more separate peptide chainsprimary secondary tertiary quaternary3 main proteins are globular fibrous membraneglobular, fibrous, membrane -water soluble, dominated by tertiary structure -non water soluble dominated by secondary structure -include proteins, pumps channels, receptorswhat is called when proteins are reversed back to there primary structure? irreversible or reversible-protein denature, most case irreversiblenucletotides A--T how many H bonds G-C how many H bonds Purines has how many rings and which two nuclotides? Pyrimidines has how many rings and which two nuclotides? ribose vs deoxyribose5C sugar, P, nitrogenous base, -2 -3 -2 rings, A-G (Pure are cold) -1 ring, C- U/T -ribose=rna, doxyribose= dnacell theoryidea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cellsRNA world hypothesishypothesis that RNA served as the genetic information of early life. Rna have there own genetic info, they are unstable compared to DNA because of there extra hyroxyl groupCentral DogmaDNA -> RNA -> ProteinStereomicroscope (light)Visible light for surface of sample. Can look at living samples, but low resolution vs compound light micro.compound microscopea light microscope that used to see thin section of a sample can only view some living organsims. need to stain for good visibilityphase contrast microscopelight microscope observation of living organisms, including internal structures if thin. has good resolution and contrast, cant see through thick sampleconfocal laser scanning microscopeused to observe thin slices while keeping a sample in tact; common method for viewing chromosomes during mitosis can observe specific parts of a cell using can cause artifacts(bubbles)Scanning elctron microscope (SEM)Look at surface of (3D) objects with high resolution. Can't use on living sampleCryo SEMlike SEM, but sample is frozen instead of dehydrated to produce a 3D image of sample's surfaceTransmission Electron Microscope (TEM)study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens. but cant use on living samplesElectron Tomographynot a microscope but a method used to generate a three-dimensional sample of a model. Cant use on living organsimsAnabolic reaction catabolic reactionsmall ->big molecules big->small moleculeswhat lowers the activation of energy ---, which then--- the overall reaction A non-protein molecule that assits the enzyme by donating or accepting some components of the reaction is called organic cofactors are from--- inorganic cofactors are from metal ions -- and -- cofactors that binds tightly or covalent to the enzyme its called a-catalyst, accelerates -coenzyme -vitamins -Fe and Mg -prosthetic groupMichaelis constant (Km) what has an active site for substrates but also an allosteric site for bind of allosteric effectors? which inhibitor mimics the substrate and compete with the active site? KM and VMAX is affected how? which inhibitor inhibits enzyme by binding elsewhere than the active site? which inhibitor enzyme inhibitor binds only to the formed enzyme-substrate (ES) complex? small km means it needs--amount of substrate to become saturated? large km means it needs -amount of substrate to reach max velocity is large or small km good?-Concentration of substrate at which an enzyme works at half its maximum velocity; Vmax -Allosteric enzymes -competitve, Km is raised, vmax is not -noncompetitive, Vmax is decreased, Km is not -uncompetitive -small -large -small kmwhere does pyruvate decarboxylation occur? How many ADH and CO2 molecules are produced from one glucose? Where does the kreb cycle occur? anarobic or aerobic? Krebs Cycle: Acetyl CoA combines with oxloactetate to form--- *eventually citrate becomes converted back to oxoloacatate overall gain in krebs cycle W GLYCOSIS/ PYRUVATE-- Overall gain just in the Krebs cycle no glycosis, pyrvate deh-- WITH ONE GLUCOSE Electron transport chain occurs where: complex 1,3,4 pump protons into the --space whats the final electron acceptor in ETC byproduct is more H--> more (acidic or basic)_> lower ph between NADH or FADH2 which one has more and why? Is it anarobic or aerobic?- mitochonrial matrix -2 ADH, 2CO2 because there are two pyruvates -mitochonrial matrix, aerobic -citrate -3 NAD, 2CO2, 1 FAD/ATP -6NAD, 4CO2, 2 FAD/ATP - inner membrane of mitochondria -intermembrane space -oxygen -water -NADH becauses it enters first while FAD enters @ complex 2 -aerobicFermentation in alcolic what is the final electron acceptor? (CORI CYCLE) lactate is a byproduct so it goes throught the blood goes inside the liver and converts lactate into ----.-acetalaldehyde -glucoseCellular respiration only uses (catabolic/ anabolic/ or both)? cellular metabolism only uses (catabolic/ anabolic/ or both)? What other 3 resources could you use if you can not make glucose? two main hormones that are regulated? glucose--> glycogen to store it /activates what? glucagon (glucose is gone) is similare to what? break down glycogen --> glucose-catabolism --both -other carbohydrates, lipids, proteins -insulin, glucagon -insulin, phosphofructokinase -epinephrine -glucagonTriglycerides are broken down to glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains is called? whaat enzymes help? glycerol turn into -- fatty acid go through beta oxidation where is this located -- and require what? beta oxidation break down -- number of carbon at the beta position what are the three types of lipoproteins? proteins are amino acids but in order to use them we needs to get rid of the -- group? what is this called? converts to-- which then convert to urea?-lipolysis, lipase -glycerolaldehyde 3 phophate -matrix of mitochondria, ATP -2 -LDLS"unhealthy" ,HDLS"healthy" ,Chylomicrons -amino, oxidative deaminationDomain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Over, Family, Genus, Species what are the three domains? Eukarya is what type of cell? Archraea/Eubacteria is what type of cell?dear king phillipi come over for some good soup -Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukarya -eukoryotes -prokaryotesProkaryotes vs. Eukaryotes-singled celled, no organelles, no nucleus, has circular DNA, peptidoglycon cell wall, no introns, flagella made from flagellin, reproduce by binary fission, dna is held in a nucliode, 70s ribosmome -single or mutlicullular, orgnanelles, nuclues, has cillia or flagella made from tubullin , dna is linear, has intron, reproduce mitosis or meiosis, 80s ribosomeparasite is a hetrotroph or autotroph? what live off dead decaying matter? type of autotroph that use inorganic molecules? facilitative anarobe?-heterotroph -saprophytes (decomposer) -chemoautotrophs(chemosynthesis) -can use oxygen but can also live without oxygenoldest domain of life? Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes? do they have peptiglycoen layer? instead of ester it has --- linkage to glycerol? has intron or no? does it have histones? 3 types of archaea: methanogens are obligate anarobic or aerobic?what does it produce as a byproduct? found where? which ones are heat lovers? most are --based chemoautrophs? which one are salt lover?-archaea -prokayote -ether -do have intron and histones -methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles -anaerobic, methane, GI tract -thermophiles, sulfer -halophilesEubacteria are Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes? do they have peptidoglycen layer? do they have histones? eubacteria are classifed into 3 shapes? then classify them by there 2 group?-prokaryotes -yes -no -1. bacillus(rod shape), 2. coccus(circle), 3. sprillium (spiral) -strepto(multiple cells in a chain), staphyl (cluster of cells)Gram + do they have a thick or thin layer of peptidoglycen yes or no to LPS (lipopolysacharide) outer mem what color are they Gram - do they have a thick or thin layer of peptidoglycen yes or no to LPS (lipopolysacharide) outer mem what color are they-thick -no -purple -thin -yes -pinkNitrofying bacteria and nitgrogen fixing have a what type of relationship? cyanobacteria(blue green algue) Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes? but bacteria are Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes?-mutalistic -Prokaryotes, Eukaryotestype of 3 types of bacteria genetic recomination? horizontal gene transfer (tries to transfer plasmid)? includes heat or CaCl and causes the cell to take in plasmids virus injects its genome into the bacteria, this get foriegn dna into a bacteria and it transfers this to other cells via conjugation.-conjugation, tranformation, tranduction -conjugation -transformation -transductionViruses are living or non-living? suffix phage includes a --? they are made of either DNA or RNA but never? DNA or RNA is inside a --- made of capsomers? what are the two cycles of virus? which one effects the host hell and hijack the matchinary then it will erupt and kill the cell? retrovirus converts -- to ---has the enzyme ? whats one that hides out in a host genome after it gets a certain signal it goes under -- cycle?Non-living virus both lytic or lysogenic lytic RNA-DNA , reverse transcriptase lysogenic, lyticEukarya has four kingdoms protista live in what type of enviroment? 3 type of protist? plant like protist? dinoflagellates is a common example;? another example; Euglenoids(freshwater)..... diatoms? if algae pops what taxicnomic group does it go under? brown algae isnt under protista-protista, fungi, plantae, animalia -moist -plants, fungi, anamlia -photosnythetic autotrophs, they have choroplast, there the primary prodcuers in the food web -unicelllar plant like protist, they have two flagella (DI)causes red tide, both autroph and hetertroph becuases they are considrered a parasite -find in aquatic, single celled -informal, all aquatic, uni or multicellular, photsyntehtic, no plant tissueschlorophyta rhodophyta all animal like protist are mutli or uni cellular example of; example fungis like protisistgreen algae red algae -single cell -foraminifera, paramecium, amoeboid, apicomplexan, plasmodium(cause malaria ) -slime moldsfungi have --- there 2 type of fungi example of unicellular? example of multicullular? there are two types of myecelium coenocytic hyphae? septate hyphae? specialized hyphae that penetrates cell walls of an organsims( parasitic) multicullar can undergo asexual and sexual examples of each-chitin, hetrotroph -unicellular(nonfilmentouse), mutlicellular (filamentoues) -yeast, facultative anaerobic, asexul -mold, sexual, aerobic, mycelium (network of hyphae connects fungi together ) -coenocytic hyphae and septate hyphae -no seperation, no divisoion and are multinucleated -have seperatetion(septa) -haustoria -asexual; spores, budding, fragmentation (haploid) /// sexual (genetic varaiation ) plasmogamy, karygamy, meoisisplasmogamy karyogamy meiosis-when 2 hypae grow toward each other and cytoplasm fuse together -nuclues fuse together to make a diploid cell -once it becomes a zygote and wants to reproduce 2n-->1n-Mycota (suffix) mycete mutulistic relationship between fungi and algae is called? mutulistic relationship between fungi and roots of a plant called?fungi -lichens -mycorrhizaplants are multi or uniceullular? asexual sexual or both? 90% or -- in nature gametopphyte (2n or 1n) sporophyte (2n or 1n) 1. plant body no differentiaition? plant body with differentiaition? 2. does have a vascular system? does not have a vascular system? 3. no seeds? have seeds? 4. has flowers? no flowers? angiosperms has two sub-catergory?-multicellular -both -mutulistic realtionship -1n -2n -thallophyte (simplest form) (algae) -bryophyte and tracheophyte -tracheophyte (sporophyte) -bryophyte (moss)(gametophyte s) -seedless tracheophyte(fern) seed bearing tracheotphte -angiosperms (seed inside fruit) -gymnosperms(naked seeds) (conifers) -monocots(one parrell viens, scattered vascular mutiple of 3 , dicots (two, net-like veins, ringed vascular, multiple of 4 and 5Animilia Kingdom are multi or uniceullular? does it include autorpohs do they have a cell wall how many phyla are under animalia-multicellular -no -no -10Body symmetry bilateral symmetry radial asymmetry-left/right -central axis around circular arrangment (oral side and aboral side(without mouth) -none (example sponge)tissues lack tissues, no complex design, no special organs, only one phyla porifera(sponges)? have tissues, complex, special organs, everything besides sponge?-parazoa -metazoagerm layer two germ layer: endoderm, ectoderm three germ layer endoderm, mesoderm ectoderm whats in the middle and the endoderm surronds this? are radial symmetrical animals are what? are bilateral symmetrical animals are what? triploblast are sub-caterogrized into coelon (a body cavity between meso and endoderm what are the three called? which one has no coelom in the body? which one has a coelom surronded by mesoderm which one has a coelom thats not completely surronded by mesoderm?-diploblasts -triploblast -digestive cavity -diploblastic -triploblastic -acoelomate coelmate, psuedocoelmate -acoelomate -coelomate -psuedocolomateembryonic development triploblastic coelomates can either be a ?? blastopore becomes the mouth?what kind of cleavage blastopore becomes the anus?what kind of cleavage?-protosome or deutrosome -protosome, spiral -deuterostome, radialdigestive tract if it has a mouth AND anus its which digestive tract? if it has only a mouth and no anus its which digestive tract?-complete digestive tract -incomplete digestive tractreproduction offspring are produced by one parents?what are some examples? has two parents? two types have both male and female reproductive organs? either male or female?-asexual, budding fragmentation, parthenogenesis -sexual, internal external -monoecious -dieciousPorifera parazoa or metazoa? type of body symetry? only one to they dont have a mouth they use what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? what is responsible to move water in and out?-sponges -parazoa -asymmetrical -intracellular -both -choanocytecnidaria parazoa or metazoa? type of body symetry? diploblast or triploblast? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? 2 stages polyp and medusa?-jellyfish, coral, hydras -metazoa -radial -diploblast -incomplete (2 way) -both -dont move, movePlatyhelminthes parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? type of body symetry? diploblast or triploblast? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? flames cells in a bundle are called?-worms -metazoa -triploblast -acoelmate -bilateral -incomplete -both -protonephridiarotifera parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? type of body symetry? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both?rotifers small microscopic animals -metezoa -triploplast -psuedocolmate -bilateral -complete -bothNemotoda parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? do nematodes have or not have cephalization? type of body symetry? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both?worms (round, hook) -metazoa -triploblast -pseudocoelum -no -bilateral -complete (mouth and anus) -bothMollusca parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? protosome or deutrersome? type of body symetry? what type of digestion? uses a ? sexual or asexual or both? has a circulatory system what kind? 1st to have a repisratory system metanepridia or organ bojanus Cephalopods some have cephilization true/false have well developed what type of system? if they have cephilization what kind of circulatory system do the have? Gastropod what kind of circulatory system do the have? have cephalization? Bivalves what kind of circulatory system do the have? have cephalization?octopus, slugs, squid, clam -metazoa -triploblast -colomate -protosome -bilateral -complete/ radula -most are dioecious -closed and open (head/foot)spquid, octupus -true -nervous -closed (stomach and foot) snail and slug -open -yes clams, scallops, oysters, mussels -open -noAnnalida example? parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? protosome or deutrersome? type of body symetry? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? 1st one to have a circulatory chaetae is what? oligochaeta or polygochaetamost advanced type of worm, leeche and earthworm -metazoa -triploblast -colomate -protosomes -bilateral -complete -both -closed -hair like for movementAthropoda parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? protosome or deutrersome? type of body symetry? do they have cephalization? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? has a circulatory system what kind? have a excretion system via lampoghian tubules. excrete what? since they dont have lymph system what its called when lymph and blood system are together? they do have a respritory system? Insecta(largest group) how legs do they have? uses spiracles and tracheal tubes to get? how many pairs of antena? Crustaceans how many pairs of antena? book gills are used to get what? Arachnids how legs do they have? uses book lungs to get? how many pairs of antena?largest phylum of animals ex: spiders, insects, crustaceans -metazoa -triploblast -colomate -protosome -bilateral -yes -complete -uric acid -open -hemolymph -yes -6 -oxygen -1 -2 -oxygen -spiders, ticks, scorpians -8 -gas exchange -noneechinodermata parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? protosome or deutrersome? type of body symetry? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? has a circulatory system what kind? what are they cells called that filter the bodily fluid?starfish, sea urchins, cucumbers -metazoa -triploblast -coelomate -duetrosome -radial as adults and bilateral as larva -complete -both -open -podocyteschordata parazoa or metazoa? diploblast or tripoblast what type of coelum? protosome or deutrersome? type of body symetry? do they have cephalization? what type of digestion? sexual or asexual or both? has a circulatory system what kind? 4 key feature notochord - becomes what? dorsal hollow nerve cord -becomes what? pharygeal slit post anal tailreptiles, fish, amphibians, birds, mammals -metazoa -triploblast -coelomate -duetrosome -bilateral -yes -complete -both mostly sexual -closed -flexible rod that provides structure, verterbral column -becomes the nervouse system and becomes the brain and spinal cord -opening on the back of the mouth that developes into gills or jaws and inner ear -extenstion at end of the body, used for swimming in fishchordata can be spilt into two groups: Invertebrates urochordata (tunicates ) as adults only have --- they can move --when but not -- asexual or sexual? live where? cephalochordata(lancletes ) as an adult do they have all 4 key chraraterisitics?vertebrates and invertebrates -pharyngeal slits -larva, sessile(adult) -both -bottom of the oceans(benthos) -yesverbebrates notochords = what is vertebra made of? dorsal hallow nerve cord becomes the what protects the brain? offspring develop inside the mother? offspring hatch outside of mother body?(lay egg) egg hatches inside the mothers body? Two chambered heart? has how many atria and ventricle? three chambered heart? has how many atria and ventricle? four chambered heart? has how many atria and ventricle? pump blood out of the heart ? pump blood in the heart?-vertebrae -bone OR cartilage -spinal cord and brain -cranium -viviparous -oviparous -ovoviviparous -fish (1A, 1 V) -reptiles and amphibians (2A, 1 V) -mammals and birds (2A, 2V) -ventricle -atriafish jawless= cartilaginous= bony= what characteristeric they all share in common forcing water from their mouth to pass through there gills? swimming with their mouth open to ram water in? do all fish have a swim bladder?what does it do what do they excrete as a nitrogen byporduct?-agnatha -chondrichthyes -osteichthyes -gills(pharyngeal slits), lateral line, 2 chambered heart -buccal pumping -ram ventilation -no, control buoyancy -ammoniajawless fish(agnatha) no jaw or scales, no bones, only what? do they have a swim bladder? what type of reproduction? are lamprey parastic? hagfish secrete what for defense?lamprey and hagfish -cartliage -no -oviparous -yes -slimebony fish(osteichthyes) skeleton made of--? operculum? do they have a cloaca? what type of reproduction? what are the two subclass?tuna, salomon, trout -bone -covers gills for protection -no -many types oviparous, viviparous,oviviviparous -ray finned, lobe finnedcartilaginous fish (chondrichthyes) do sharks have bones? what do they have? do they have jaws? comes from what? do they have a swim bladder? ampullae of lorenzini? a single opening for excretion, digestion, reproduction? what type of reproduction?shark, rays -no, cartilouge -yes, pharyngeal slits -no -sensory organ for navigation -cloaca -many types oviparous, viviparous,oviviviparousamphibian(ectotherm=cold animal) tetrapod? how many chambered heart when do they have gills and lungs? are they aquatic or terrestrial? what is there nitrogenous waste? type of reproduction?where do they lay there egss?frog, toad, salamander -4 limbs -3 -gills (tadpoles), lungs(adult) -aquatic (tadpoles), terrestrial(adults) -urea -oviparous, ovoviviparous, waterwhat are amniotes? all amniotes are tetrapods (t/f) are all tetrapods amniotes?(t/f) all amniotes have eggs that have?-reptiles, birds, mammals -true -false becuase of amphibians -anmnionreptiles (ectotherms) are they a tetrapod? is the skin permeable? tyes of reproduction? how many chambered heart? nirtogenoues waste? do they have lungs?turtles, snakes, liards, crocodiles -yes -no - oviparous, viviparous,oviviviparous -3 but crocodiles and alligators have 4 -uric acid -yesbirds(endotherm) are they a tetrapod? tyes of reproduction? how many chambered heart? nirtogenoues waste? do they have lungs? do or do not have a cloaca? old air and new air dont mix in there respirtotory systme is called?(most advanced in anamilia) air spaces that make them lighter is what kind of bones?-yes -oviparous -4 -uric acid -they do -air sacs -pneumatic bonesmammals (endotherm) are they a tetrapod? tyes of reproduction? how many chambered heart? nirtogenoues waste? mammary gland does what? pharyngeal slits become? three class under mammals monotremes tyes of reproduction? do they have a cloaca? do they have teeth marsupials tyes of reproduction? young are carried in a -- after birth? Placental tyes of reproduction? fetus is carried where? thye have a placenta-yes -viviparous, oviparous all sexual -4 -urea -produces milk for newborn -ear -platypus, anteater -oviparous -yes -no kangaroo, koala, -viviparous -pouch -elephants, rabbits, humans, whales -viviparous -uterus