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a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule (a.k.a. synthesis reaction, anabolic, condensation)
Process that disassembles polymers, means to break using water (a.k.a. decomposition reaction, catabolic, digestion)
include both sugars and polymers of sugars, ratio of two hydrogen to each oxygen (contain only C, H, and O)
simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer larger saccharides. The molecular formulas are generally some multiple of CH2O (Carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, is either an aldehyde or ketone)
macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
Stored by plants, a polymer of glucose (alpha) monomers, as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, doesn't attract water
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
a polysaccharide that is a major component of all plant tissues and fibers, especially the tough walls that enclose plant cells (beta glucose units) insoluble, undigestible, aka fiber
structural polysaccharide that makes up the cell walls of fungi and found in the external skeletons of arthropods
do not include true polymers, generally not considered macromolecules, made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes (do not mix well, if at all, with water)
long carbon skeleton (usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length) contains a carboxyl group, relatively non-polar
Saturated Fatty Acid
hydrocarbon chain structure contains no double bonds, saturated with hydrogen, solid at room temperature
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
hydrocarbon chain structure containing one or more (poly-) double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen atom for each double-bonded carbon causing a kink in the hydrocarbon chain, liquid at room temperature, oils
result of hydrogenated vegetable oils creating trans double bonds instead of cis double bonds
only has two fatty acids attached to a glycerol , which is attached to a phosphate group, has a negative electrical charge creating a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail, make up cell membranes
crucial molecule in animals, component of animal membranes, precursor from which other steroids are synthesized (in liver and obtained from the diet)
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction, enzymatic proteins
functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure (HCNO sometimes S)
organic molecule possessing a central (alpha) carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group (there are 20 amino acids/R groups)
the bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another, joined through a dehydration reaction forming a covalent bond
alpha helix or beta pleated sheets resulting from hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone
overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains of the various amino groups (disulfide bridges (covalent bonds) and hydrophobic interactions (van der Waals) hydrogen bonds between polar side chains, ionic bonds between between charged chains)
overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of polypeptide subunits
unraveling of a protein so it loses its native shape, occurs due to changes in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental changes
consist of DNA, unique units of inheritance that provide the codes for the amino acid sequence of polypeptides
Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA)
inherited from parents, present in all cells, directs RNA synthesis and through it protein synthesis, lacking oxygen
composed of three parts, nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups (contain CHON and P)
one family of nitrogenous bases, has six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (C, T, and U)
one family of nitrogenous bases, large, six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring (A, G)
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