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52 terms

Campbell AP Biology: Chapter 5

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
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Polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Monomers
the smaller, repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
Enzymes
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions (proteins)
Dehydration Reaction
Reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule (a.k.a. synthesis reaction, anabolic, condensation)
Hydrolysis
Process that disassembles polymers, means to break using water (a.k.a. decomposition reaction, catabolic, digestion)
Carbohydrates
include both sugars and polymers of sugars, ratio of two hydrogen to each oxygen (contain only C, H, and O)
Monosaccharides
simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer larger saccharides. The molecular formulas are generally some multiple of CH2O (Carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups, is either an aldehyde or ketone)
Disaccharide
consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
Glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
Polysaccharides
macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
Starch
Stored by plants, a polymer of glucose (alpha) monomers, as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, doesn't attract water
Maltose
A disaccharide made up of two glucose units (joined number 1 and number 4 carbon)
Sucrose
A disaccharide made up of a glucose and fructose unit, table sugar
Lactose
A disaccharide made up of glucose and galactose
Amyloplasts
colorless plastids that store starch
Glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
Cellulose
a polysaccharide that is a major component of all plant tissues and fibers, especially the tough walls that enclose plant cells (beta glucose units) insoluble, undigestible, aka fiber
Chitin
structural polysaccharide that makes up the cell walls of fungi and found in the external skeletons of arthropods
Lipids
do not include true polymers, generally not considered macromolecules, made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes (do not mix well, if at all, with water)
Fat
constructed from the glycerol alcohol and three fatty acids
Fatty Acids
long carbon skeleton (usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length) contains a carboxyl group, relatively non-polar
Triacylglycerol
three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule, also known as triglyceride
Esther Linkage
Covalent bond between hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group
Saturated Fatty Acid
hydrocarbon chain structure contains no double bonds, saturated with hydrogen, solid at room temperature
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
hydrocarbon chain structure containing one or more (poly-) double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen atom for each double-bonded carbon causing a kink in the hydrocarbon chain, liquid at room temperature, oils
Trans Fat
result of hydrogenated vegetable oils creating trans double bonds instead of cis double bonds
Phospholipids
only has two fatty acids attached to a glycerol , which is attached to a phosphate group, has a negative electrical charge creating a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail, make up cell membranes
Steroids
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Cholesterol
crucial molecule in animals, component of animal membranes, precursor from which other steroids are synthesized (in liver and obtained from the diet)
Polypeptides
polymers of amino acids
Catalysts
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction, enzymatic proteins
Protein
functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure (HCNO sometimes S)
Amino Acid
organic molecule possessing a central (alpha) carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group (there are 20 amino acids/R groups)
Peptide Bond
the bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another, joined through a dehydration reaction forming a covalent bond
Frederick Sanger
pioneer in determining the amino acid sequence of proteins through insulin
Primary Structure
linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence
Secondary Structure
alpha helix or beta pleated sheets resulting from hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone
Tertiary Structure
overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains of the various amino groups (disulfide bridges (covalent bonds) and hydrophobic interactions (van der Waals) hydrogen bonds between polar side chains, ionic bonds between between charged chains)
Quaternary Structure
overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of polypeptide subunits
Denaturation
unraveling of a protein so it loses its native shape, occurs due to changes in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental changes
Chaperonins
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
Gene
consist of DNA, unique units of inheritance that provide the codes for the amino acid sequence of polypeptides
Nucleic Acids
polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides
Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA)
inherited from parents, present in all cells, directs RNA synthesis and through it protein synthesis, lacking oxygen
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
direct production of a polypeptide, contains U nitrogenous base
Polynucleotides
polymers of nucleotides
Nucleotides
composed of three parts, nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups (contain CHON and P)
Pyrimidine
one family of nitrogenous bases, has six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (C, T, and U)
Purines
one family of nitrogenous bases, large, six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring (A, G)
Prime Carbon
5th or 3rd carbon not attached to nitrogenous base, mark the ends of polynucleotides
Double Helix
formed by DNA strands spiraled around an imaginary axis
Antiparallel
arrangement of opposite running sugar-phosphate backbones in DNA