142 terms

World Midyear

From the term list.
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Louis XIV
(1643-1715) Also known as the "Sun King". The ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe.
Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Hobbes
(1588-1679) An English royalist, wrote Leviathan and argued in favor of absolute monarchy due to the evil state of nature of humans. Angered other royalists and supporters of Parliament. "Life is nasty, brutish, and short."
Locke
(English) Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Montesquieu
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
Newton
1643-1727. English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Described universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion.
Copernicus
1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
Wollstonecraft
(English) wrote Vindication of the Rights of Womenin support of The Rights of Women
philosophes
A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.
Napoleon
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms (pray to whoever you want, just pay taxes to me) as well as conquering most of Europe. Invaded Russia, exiled, returned, then defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later in exile on the island of Saint Helena.
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793 by the French people.
Marie Antoinette
A pretty, lighthearted, charming, Austrian woman. Austria promised her to King Louis XVI in marriage in exchange for an alliance between Austria and France. She was unpopular with her people due to being Austrian, lavish spending, and her involvement in controversial affairs.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Metternich
(1773-1859) Austrian statesman, controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe
Simon Bolivar
(1783-1830) Leader for independence who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The George Washington of South America.
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru 1810.
Miguel Hidalgo
- Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated (1810) against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.
Toussaint L'Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Louis Napoleon
..., nephew of napoleon bonaparte, won the french presidential election in 1848, and named himself emperor Napoleon II in 1852
Alexander II
(ruled 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Garibaldi
19th century; Italian patriot and war hero, took over Sicily and gave it to Emmanuel II in order to unify country; army=red shirts
Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivered "blood and iron" speech. King Wilhelm trusted him to make decisions like setting up the first welfare programs.
King Wilhelm I
crowned Kaiser at the palace of Versailles on January 18, 1871, trusted Bismarck to run the show, this was the Second Reich.
Adam Smith
1723- 1790; Scottish; "Wealth of Nations"; first economist; "laissez-faire capitalism"; not completely against govt regulation; pro free trade; let individuals pursue own interest; attacks mercantilism- skilled workforce and strong infrastructure determines power of country- not how much stacks of gold you have; colonization is dumb and morally wrong.
Malthus
An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence; consequences will be war, famine, and disease (1766-1834)
Edison
Late 1800s, most versatile inventor, invented the phonograph, the moving picture and the light bulb, American.
Alexander Graham Bell
American inventor and educator; his interest in electrical and mechanical devices to aid people with hearing impairments led to the development and patent of the telephone, 1876
Marconi
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
Henry Ford
(1863-1947) he was an American businessman, the founder of Ford Motor Company, the father of modern assembly lines, and an inventor credited with 161 patents
James Watt
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)-German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development. Opposed to religion as the root of many wars.
Shaka Zulu
Leader of Zulu people, Around 1816 used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state. The Zulu land became part of British-controlled land in 1887.
Boers
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutch settlers.
Sepoys
-Indian soldiers in the service of the East India Company, to serve anywhere (either in India or overseas). When the BEIC became part of the British Govt, so did the Sepoys.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Empress CiXi
Empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty; supported Boxer Rebellion in 1898 as a means of driving out foreigners, died in 1908, leaving her nephew to serve as Emperor.
PuYi
Last emperor of China. Came to the throne aged three 1908, abdicated aged six 2/12/12. During Japanese occupation of China became Emperor of the puppet-state, Manchuria. Ended life working as a gardener under Mao.
Enlightenment
A movement of ideas that occurred in Europe between 1680 and 1790. Attempted to apply reason to understand, explain and even change the world.
Glorious Revolution
England, 1688; the parliament deposed King James II, a Roman Catholic who had asserted royal rights over the rights of Parliament. Parliament gave the crown to the Protestant King William III, a Dutch prince, and his British wife, Queen Mary II (daughter of James II), as joint rulers. When the crown was offered to William and Mary, they agreed to a Bill of Rights that severely limited the king or queen's power. The British Bill of Rights is often regarded as a forerunner to the United States Bill of Rights.
Parliament
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation, (England, but other countries call their rep body Parliament as well).
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
Reign of Terror
1793-1794, Robespierre started it. Over 10,000 people executed and if you were against the ideals of the Revolution, or someone said you were... you died.
Coup D'Etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon over the French and anyone they controlled that gave equality of all male citizens before the law and security of wealth and private property. Elections for local offices, taxes going to the French, freedom of religion, but not of the press are features.
Sans Coulottes
Litterally "without Coulottes" a popular French pants style of the upper and middle class. A symbol of wealth, this group formed against the wearing of them and started to persecute all who did. Parisian shopkeepers and workers who wanted the Revolution to bring about greater change.
Battle of Trafalgar
(1805) British Admiral Horatio Nelson destroys Napoleonic French and Spanish fleets, but then dies. British do not lose any ships. Ends all French hopes of invading Britain and guarantees British control of the sea for the rest of the war.
Continental System
(1806-12)French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign (Napoleon's poorly thought out invasion of Russia).
Peninsular War
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain.
Waterloo
"to suffer an ultimate, decisive defeat"- In 1815, the Battle of Waterloo was fought near the village of Waterloo, which is now in Belgium. This was the final battle in the Napoleonic wars, the battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte was finally defeated and sent to his second exile in St Helena.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815) Very conservative meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Peninsulares
100 percent Spanish, Spanish born government and church officials who made up the upper class in the Spanish-controlled Americas.
Creoles
American-born Spaniards who owned land, but ranked below "real" Europeans in the Spanish controlled Americas.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry. Forms 60% of the Mexican Population.
Mulattos
Groups in Latin America that blend African ancestry with white and Indian ancestry in the Spanish controlled Americas.
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
nation-state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality. (So when ethnicity and nationality are the same, rare in many regions)
Franco-Prussian War
(1870 - 1871) Was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia.
entrepreneur
A person who risks time and money to start and manage a business
enclosure
Caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities or leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World.
crop rotation
An agricultural technique in which crop species in a field are alternated from season to season to avoid nutrient depletion.
seed drill
created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields.
chemical revolution
1860-1914 process of isolating elements and harnessing their power to make fertilizers and alloys (combinations of elements) to further growth and industry.
industrialization
Caused a shift from an economy based on farming to an economy based on manufacturing by machines in factories
factors of production
Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services.
urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
bourgeoisie
A social class that derives social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners or feudal privileges. It's a term for the middle class common in the 19th century. It's characterized by their ownership of property and their related culture.
Luddites
A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. The Luddites believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. The Luddites responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
stock
A share of ownership in a corporation.
corporation
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
laissez faire
Adam Smith's idea of economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy. "hands off"
capitalism
An economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit.
communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state. Generally it is felt that the workers of the world will rise up to destroy the owners of the means of production to create this society.
utilitarianism
A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system.
socialism
An economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange. This will come about through gradual legislative change.
utopianism
the political orientation of a utopian who believes in impossibly idealistic schemes social perfection
unions
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
strikes
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met.
assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
combustion engine
oil burning, replaced steam engine, used in transportation (people are safe being close to it, oil burns longer/slower than coal)
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
Protestantism
Christian movement that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 16th century Europe during the Reformation. Protestants believed that only Jesus Christ could the intermediary between God and humans, criticized Catholic practice of following the Pope and praying to saints. Supported simplified church services, and persons spending time interpreting the Bible for themselves.
Impressionism
A movement 1860s, that developed as a new way of looking at the world. It wanted to capture an impression of a scene using light, vivid color, and motion, rather than just showing its realistic details since the camera could now do that.
Romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason.
Realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Absolutism
A form of government, usually hereditary monarchy, in which the ruler has no legal limits on his or her power. Louis XIV the Sun King is the poster boy for this.
skepticism
A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.
Divine Right
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Catholicism
Original branch of Christianity marked by worship of the Virgin Mary, repentance and forgiveness, and the power accorded to Pope in Rome. Predominant religion in Europe since 400CE, still majority. Protestantism broke away from this.
westernization
An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western—especially European or American—countries.
Constitutional monarchy
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
geocentric theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.
heliocentric theory
Developed by Nicolas Copernicus. Reasoned that the earth, moon, and other planets revolve around the Sun.
scientific method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
germ theory
Theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes. Hypoth by Pasteur, 1861, led to enormous population growth.
social contract
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
enlightened despotism
A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known Enlightened monarchs.
conservative
A person who is averse to change and holds to traditional values and attitudes, typically in politics. Power should stay with those who have it already.
liberal
A person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties. Power to the people.
radical
A person who wants drastic change in society. Can be liberal or conservative (wanting things to go back to the way it was before; aka reactionary).
nationalism
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
second agricultural revolution
Coincided with the Industrial Revolution in England and a higher population growth rate, and saw the development of improved sanitation, storage, and fertilization techniques, allowing for greater food output.
imperialism
A policy in which a strong/industrialized nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Berlin Conference
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans.
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference. The Corollary extended by Roosevelt emphasized that South America was not to be invaded.
Zionism
A movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Victorian Ideals
Ideals that stressed the home as sanctuary; women and children are protected from harsh, immoral world, 1) duty 2) thrift 3) hard work 4) honesty 5) respectability
racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
suffrage
(n) the right to vote in political elections.
White Man's Burden
Poem by Rudyard Kipling, 1899. The name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. It was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the "savage" native populations in far off lands.
raw materials
Basic substance in its natural, modified, or semi-processed state, used as an input to a production process for subsequent modification or transformation into a finished good.
natural resources
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
indirect control imperialism
The imperial power comes occasionally to collect taxes, raw materials, etc. but does not set up a government of their own people within the territory.
direct control imperialism
The imperial power establishes themselves in the area to be controlled in order to direct the trade, and whatever aspects of society that they care to administer.
protectorate
A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
sphere of influence
An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges, but is not directly in control.
Social Darwinism
Although rejected by biologists including Darwin, this theory from the 1870s justified the competition of laissez-faire capitalism, the new racial superiority ideas, and imperialist policies.
means of production
Karl Marx used this phrase to refer to any resources, like land, tools, factories, and raw materials, that are used to create goods and wealth
Meiji Restoration
In 1868, a Japanese state-sposored industrialization and westernization effort that also involved the elimination of the Shogunate and power being handed over to the Japanese Emperor, who had previously existed as mere spiritual/symbolic figure.
Tokugawa
was a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule in Tokyo. This family ruled until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
Roosevelt Correlary
Extension of the Monroe Doctrine; declared an American right to intervene in Latin America nations under certain circumstances.
Queen Victoria
British queen from 1837-1901 with the longest reign in English history who helped to stabilize the economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India.
Chartist Movement
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the right to vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed
Maori
indigenous people of New Zealand
Aborigines
The original of earliest known inhabitants of a country. Especially Australia.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Taiping Rebellion
A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners. (1850-64)
Caudillos
By the 1830s, following several hopeful decades of Enlightenment-inspired revolution against European colonizers, Latin America was mostly ruled by these creole military dictators.
Jose Marti
a Cuban poet and journalist in exile in New York who launched a revolution in 1895. He organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property. He counted on provoking U.S. intervention to help the rebels achieve a free Cuba.
Spanish American War
War that began in 1898 and stemmed from furor in America over treatment of Cubans by Spanish troops that controlled the island; a major result of this was the acquisition of the Philippines, which made America a major power in the Pacific.
Suez Canal
Egyptians with funding from France and later Britain created this major transportation project completed in 1869.
Emiliano Zapata
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.
Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Porfirio Diaz
One of Juarez's generals, elected president of Mexico in 1876, dominated Mexican political for 35 years, imposed strong central government as a dictator, overthrown by the Revolution of 1910.
Santa Anna
Dictator of Mexico; laid siege on the Alamo; was defeated by the Texans at the Battle of San Jacinto; forced to sign a treaty that gave Texans their independence; In Mexican-American War he was defeated at the Battle of Buena Vista and he was forced to give up Mexico City.
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
President of Mexico (1858-1872). Born in poverty in Mexico, he was educated as a lawyer and rose to become chief justice of the Mexican supreme court and then president. He led Mexico's resistance to a French invasion in 1863 and the installation of Maximilian as emperor.
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