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25 terms

Ch #3 Cells

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Most human cells range from 10-15 micrometers in diameter. What limits how large a cell can be?
The relationship between its volume and surface area.
The fluid outside of a cell is called
extracellular fluid
The flat shaped cells found covering the skin are?
Squamous
What are the most abundant molecules in the plasma membrane?
Phospholipids
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits?
Specificity.
In its second -messanger role, cAMP activates enzymes called__, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phosphate groups to them.
Kinases
Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membranes are___, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are___.
hydrophobic, hydrophilic
Gates respond to all these stimuli except
water in the extracellular fluid
___act like identification tags in teh glycocalyx that enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells.
Glycoproteins
___provide motility to a cell, __act as a sensory antenna in many cells, and __increase a cell's surface area.
Flagella, cilia, microvilli
Cells lining the sm. intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has
microvilli
Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a non permeating solute than B then,
water will pass downits concentration gradient from B to A
__is the process in which ___forces water & small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells.
Filtration; hydrostatic pressure
Water flows through a selectivity permeable membrane in a process called___, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called....
Osmosis; aquaporins
Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier protein is a(n)___ and the process is called___.
symport; cotransport
The sodium-potassium pump transports both na and K___ their concetration gradients in a process called_.
Up; active transport
__describes the number of partilces of a solute in a solution, whereas___is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell.
Osmolarity; tonicity
Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell?
active transport
Particles can leave a cell by any of these means except by
pinocytosis
White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of
phagocytosis
A patient was severly dehydrated, losing a lg amt of fluid. The pt was given ivf of nss. NSS is__ to your blood cells and is about__NaCl
isotonic; 0.9\%
These are all membranous organelles except
ribosomes
What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed?
protein synthesis
Muscle cells contain numerous___to serve their high demand for ATP.
mitochondria
___synthesize(s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at___.
The golgi complex; rough ER