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Most human cells range from 10-15 micrometers in diameter. What limits how large a cell can be?

The relationship between its volume and surface area.

The fluid outside of a cell is called

extracellular fluid

The flat shaped cells found covering the skin are?


What are the most abundant molecules in the plasma membrane?


A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits?


In its second -messanger role, cAMP activates enzymes called__, whose job is to regulate other enzymes by adding phosphate groups to them.


Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membranes are___, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are___.

hydrophobic, hydrophilic

Gates respond to all these stimuli except

water in the extracellular fluid

___act like identification tags in teh glycocalyx that enable the body to distinguish its own cells from foreign and diseased cells.


___provide motility to a cell, __act as a sensory antenna in many cells, and __increase a cell's surface area.

Flagella, cilia, microvilli

Cells lining the sm. intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has


Two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If solution A has a higher concentration of a non permeating solute than B then,

water will pass downits concentration gradient from B to A

__is the process in which ___forces water & small solutes such as salts through narrow clefts between capillary cells.

Filtration; hydrostatic pressure

Water flows through a selectivity permeable membrane in a process called___, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called....

Osmosis; aquaporins

Sodium and glucose are transported together from the intestinal lumen into an intestinal cell. The carrier protein is a(n)___ and the process is called___.

symport; cotransport

The sodium-potassium pump transports both na and K___ their concetration gradients in a process called_.

Up; active transport

__describes the number of partilces of a solute in a solution, whereas___is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell.

Osmolarity; tonicity

Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell?

active transport

Particles can leave a cell by any of these means except by


White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of


A patient was severly dehydrated, losing a lg amt of fluid. The pt was given ivf of nss. NSS is__ to your blood cells and is about__NaCl

isotonic; 0.9\%

These are all membranous organelles except


What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed?

protein synthesis

Muscle cells contain numerous___to serve their high demand for ATP.


___synthesize(s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at___.

The golgi complex; rough ER

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