1849, started in 1848 gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. These early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners," traveled to California by boat and in covered wagons across the continent, often facing substantial hardships on the trip. San Francisco grew from a small settlement to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. A system of laws and a government were created, leading to the admission of California as a state in 1850 This party was formed by New Yorker Charles Allen in 1849 in response to Catholic immigration (first nomination was in 1854). It was made up of native-born Protestant working men and called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner." It formed the nucleus of a new political party known as this. They captured control of the legislature in parts of New England and were the dominant opposition party to the Democrats in NY, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. They became the nation's second largest party, replacing the Whigs. Abraham Lincoln denounced them. Their party was in decline by 1856 because they were unknown men with little political experience. Their legislative program (21-years before citizen and limited political office to native Americans and restricted liquor sales) was not enacted. Replaced by a party in the North, the Republicans because Northerners felt more threatened by southern slave power than by immigrants in 1856. (1857-1861) Democrat. The Confederate States of America formed in 1861 - 1860 secession of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Louisiana, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee joined them. He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South. Lecompton Constitution supporter. Wins the 1856 presidential election over John Freemont. Doesn't do much to keep the Southern States from seceding. Kansas had two rival governments, both claiming to be the only lawful one. Guerilla warfare between the two basically broke out, causing bleeding Kansas. The Lecompton Constitution, extremely pro-slavery, was written and then boycotted by the Free-soilers, who wrote their own constitution, the Topeka Constitution. Buchanan vigorously backed the Lecompton constitution in order to appease the south and suppress anti-slavery agitation in the north. Steven Douglas, realizing that popular sovereignty had not worked, opposed it. He and Buchanan became bitter enemies, and the president decided to use all the power of the Democratic organization to crush Douglass politically. The Senate eventually approved the Lecompton constitution, but the House insisted that Kansans be given a chance to vote on the entire document. The Southern congressmen did, however, pretty much bribe Kansas by saying that if they approved the Constitution, they would receive a large federal grant of land. However, they turned it down by an overwhelming margin, choosing to remain a territory rather than become a slave state. Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861. This has a huge impact on political parties because it starts the the breakdown of the two-party system. Both Douglas and Buchanan are both very important Democrats arguing different sides, causing a split in the political party. "Honest Abe" born on February 12, 1809 in a log cabin in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up in Kentucky, then moved to Illinois at age 21. He worked as a store clerk in Illinois until he volunteered to fight Indians in the Black Hawk War. Then he became a local Postmaster and lawyer, and served 4 terms in the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly. He was elected in 1846 to the U.S. House of representatives, but his position on the Mexican War (Anti-war) made him lose re-election. Was then nominated in 1858 to run against Douglas for the senate. Even though he lost, his 7 debates with Douglas made him well known on a national scale and a front runner for the upcoming Presidential Election. He was nominated by the republican party in the election of 1860 for president. He won 39.9% of the popular vote and 180 electoral college votes, making him the winner. As president he said that he would not interfere with slavery where it already was, but he opposed the expansion of slavery. Lincoln thought War was inevitable, and wanted to make the Confederacy responsible for starting it. NOT AN ABOLITIONIST, but he said that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong". (1858)- Abraham Lincoln, a trial lawyer and former member of Illinois legislature, challenged Stephen Douglas for the Senate seat of Illinois. Nationally, the Republican candidate was unknown compared to the "Little Giant," the champion of popular sovereignty. Lincoln was not an abolitionist, but against the expansion of slavery (moral issue). Lincoln delivered the "house-divided" speech that won him fame. "Government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free." Douglas tried to portray him as the radical Southerners viewed him as. In several campaign debates, Lincoln shared the platform with Douglas. Republicans challenged Douglas' seeming indifference to slavery as a moral issue. Lincoln challenged Douglas to reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision, forcing him to take a stance. In Douglas' response, the Freeport Doctrine, he states that slavery cannot exist in a community if local citizens don't pass laws maintaining it, basically saying you can get rid of slavery if you want. This angered Southern Democrats who thought he didn't go far enough in supporting the implications of Dred Scott. Douglas won his campaign for reelection, but lost ground in his own party by alienating Southern Democrats. Lincoln emerged as a national figure and a leading contender for Republican nomination in the presidential election in 1860. The northern and southern Democrats split on who to nominate. The northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas, but the Southern Democrats didn't like him, despite his pro-slavery ideals, because of his support of popular sovereignty and nominated John C. Breckenridge instead. The Republicans saw the split between the Democrats as a chance to take the election, but they needed a candidate that could take the uncertain states (New Jersey, Illinois, Indiana and Pennsylvania), so they nominated Abraham Lincoln. The Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Lincoln narrowly won the race, winning only 40% of the popular vote and 180 electoral votes. Lincoln won all of the free states. While Breckinridge won 72 electoral votes, all from the deep south. Douglas only won 12, and Bell won 39. Together, the two Democrats, Douglas and Breckinridge, received many more popular votes than Lincoln, the Republican. Nevertheless, the divide between the Democrats allowed the Republicans to take over, and the new political reality was that the populous free states had enough electoral votes to select a president without the need for a single electoral vote from the South. A few weeks afterwards, South Carolina seceded from the nation. (February 1861) An unrecognized secessionist union existing from 1861-65. It was originally formed by seven slave states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas) who relied upon slave labor and seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln. The nation was formally declared in February 1861 with Mississippian Jefferson Davis as president of their conservative government. The created their own Constitution which was similar to the U.S. constitution except that the Confederacy placed limits on the government's power to impose tariffs and restrict slavery. They sought a peaceful separation, but the United States refused to accept the secession, considering the Confederacy illegal. After war began in April, four states of the Upper South (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia) also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy later accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were ever controlled by Confederate forces. Lee leads another offensive into Maryland and Pennsylvania. Lee hoped to force the Union to call for peace, or at least gain foreign support. His forces surprised Union units at Gettysburg, what followed was the most crucial battle of the war and the bloodiest, with more than 50,000 casualties. The charge led by George Pickett proved futile, and Lee retreated to Virginia, never again to regain the offensive. Day one was marked by the Confederates and the Union fighting for the high ground, which the Union succeeds at doing. Day two, the Confederates attempt to go around the Union forces and attack them from the front and the back. The Union BARELY survives. Day three, the Confederates decide to attack the middle assuming the sides would now be the most heavily guarded part of the front. This plan, known as Pickett's Charge, was marked with many issues, such as walking across an open field against an army stationed behind a rock wall, which you have to climb over two picket fences to get to. They lose half of the Southern army in this battle and Lee retreats to the South, never coming to the North again. The fate of the Civil War depended on who would be elected president in 1864, so too did the fate of slavery/emancipation. Lincoln supported the more than 130,000 blacks fighting for the Union. Republicans joined with pro-war Democrats to create the National Union Party, which re-nominated Lincoln with VP Andrew Johnson (Dem, Ten.). Democrats chose General George B. Mcclellan, who opposed emancipation and wanted to negotiate an end to the war to bring the country back together. Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln, because of his "10 Percent Plan". These radicals nominated General John C. Fremont, although he later withdrew. At one point, lincoln confessed that he deemed it improbable that he would be re-elected. However, his poll numbers rose dramatically when Sherman captured Atlanta, and Lincoln won 55 percent of the popular vote. John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 15, 1865. Wilkes Booth was an actor and confederate sympathizer. He shot the president in the back of the head at Ford's Theater. Lewis Paine, Booth's accomplice, attacked Secretary of State William Seward simultaneously (with a knife). However, Seward survived the attack. Booth fled to Maryland then to Virginia, where the army/secret service tracked him down to a barn. Booth did not surrender so they set the barn on fire (although John Wilkes Booth died from a self-inflicted gunshot). The assassination was part of a larger plan to kill Lincoln, Sec. of State William Seward, VP Andrew Johnson, and General Ulysses S. Grant. 8 people arrested, 4 of them were hanged, 1 died in prison, 3 were given presidential pardons. Many Northerners blamed the Confederacy. The actions and activities of both black and white Americans in the period immediately after the Civil War (1863-1877). It involved the transformation of Southern political, economic, and social institutions in a manner consistent with the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, which collectively established black freedom and equality. These social changes included the redefining of family roles, a thirst for education, and the creation of the base for the modern black community. It was accompanied by a shift from the labor of slavery to the riding of the free market and urbanization while the roots of black politics were formed and began to emerge. These were also accompanied by the legal moves of the Southern governments, bringing the the South its first public school systems, asylums, and roads. They also modernized the South by building railroads and providing social services like free public schooling through statewide taxes for education systems, including Freedmen's academies and black colleges. See Foner summary paper. This man was previously a Union General who defeated General Lee at Appomattox Court House, which ended the Civil War. In the 1868 election, Grant's triumph was surprisingly narrow against Seymour. The 500,000 new black Republican voters allowed him to win the popular vote. Republicans were able to blame the bloody war on Democrats (propaganda). During the 1872 campaign, the first of a series of political scandals came to light that would plague Grant and the Republicans for the next eight years. It involved the French-owned Crédit Mobilier construction company, which had helped build the Union Pacific Railroad. Other, lesser scandals added to the growing impression that Grantism had brought rampant corruption to the government. Compounding Grant's, and the nation's problems was a financial crisis, known as the Panic of 1873. However, the Republicans under Grant did have a few diplomatic successes, including "Seward's Folly", the purchase of Alaska (and the tiny Midway Islands), which turned to be anything but a folly. He also dealt with Alabama claims made against England. Overall, Grant's presidency was characterized by scandal and corruption, with little success. The Credit Mobilier was one of the scandals during Grant's presidency involving the Union Pacific railroad company. Lincoln finances in 1864 the construction of a transcontinental railroad 1864 by Union Pacific. It creates a fake company, called Credit Mobilier, to build the railroad, saying they will do the planning and the other company will build the railroad. What they did was saying the other company (Credit Mobilier) was charging them tens of millions of dollars more than they originally thought, so they could go back to Congress to get more money that they could then pocket. Also, some congressmen were in on it because congressman Oakes Ames distributed Crédit Mobilier shares of stock at lower prices along with cash bribes to congressmen during the Andrew Johnson presidency in 1868. Despite the start during Johnson's presidency, the scandal was not revealed until Grant's presidency in 1872, when it was revealed in 1872 in the New York Sun, which was against Grant's re-election. The story was leaked by Henry Simpson McComb, a future executive of the Illinois Central Railroad and an associate of Ames after a dispute with Ames. After the revelation, the Union Pacific went bankrupt. a group of distillers and public officials who defrauded the federal government of liquor taxes. Soon after the Civil War these taxes became very high, in some cases to eight times the price of the liquor. Large distillers, chiefly in St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Chicago, bribed government officials in order to retain the tax proceeds. The Whiskey Ring was a public scandal, but it was considered impregnable because of the strong political connections distillers had with public officials. The Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow resolved to break the conspiracy. To avoid warning the suspects, he assigned secret investigators from outside the Treasury Dept. to collect evidence. Striking suddenly in May, 1875, he arrested the persons and seized the distilleries involved. Over $3 million in taxes was recovered, and of 238 persons indicted 110 were convicted. Although President Grant's secretary, Orville E. Babcock, was acquitted through the personal intervention of the President, many people believed that the Whiskey Ring was part of a plot to finance the Republican party by fraud. The New York Tribune, one of the earliest "penny dailies" popular in the era, was established in 1841. Greeley also would publish a weekly nationwide edition of the Tribune, which won him and his views wide recognition. The Tribune set a higher tone than its competitors by avoiding sensationalism and offering regular features such as book reviews. Greeley was an early member of the Republican Party and, after initially supporting another candidate, helped to secure the nomination for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. This effort further widened Greeley's split from Seward, who had been the nomination front runner. Greeley's views on the secession crisis were the target of much criticism. He initially argued that the South should be allowed to secede. Later, however, he became a strong supporter of the war effort, but subjected Lincoln to searing criticism for refusing to free the slaves. After the war, Greeley supported a general amnesty for Confederate officials and angered many Northerners by signing a bail bond for Jefferson Davis; subscriptions to the Tribune fell by half. In 1872 Greeley received the presidential nomination of both the Liberal Republican and Democratic parties, but his candidacy was doomed from the start. Exhausted by the campaign and distraught with his wife's death, Greeley died a few weeks after the election. Rutherford B. Hayes' election did not go smoothly. The November election produced an apparent Democratic victory (Hayes was a Republican), but disputed returns from Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida, and Oregon, whose total electoral vote was 20, threw the election in doubt. Tilden had undisputed claim to 184 electoral votes, only one short of a majority, but Hayes could still win if he managed to receive all 20 disputed votes. Since the Constitution had established no concrete method, A Special Electoral Commission was put together, which gave Hayes all the votes, making him President. There were politics behind the decisions, however. This was known as the Compromise of 1877. After the withdrawal of troops, every southern state government had been "redeemed" - political power had been restored to the Democrats. Under Rutherford, there was great Railroad Development in the South, the somewhat abusive "Convict-lease" System arose, and sharecropping and the crop-lien system emerged. However, racial strife also emerged, hand in hand with the rising black middle class. This was also the age of the birth of the Jim Crow Laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the restriction of the franchise of African Americans. He played a prominent role in the reorganization of the Democratic Party in the decade from 1865 to 1875, serving as the party chairman of New York state. During this period he played a major role in the overthrow of the notorious Tweed Ring, a circle of corrupt politicians who had defrauded New York City of an estimated $30,000,000-$200,000,000, and in the removal of several corrupt judges. Elected governor (1874) on a reform platform, he won national recognition for his efficient administration and for exposing the Canal Ring, a conspiracy of politicians and contractors engaged in defrauding the state. In 1876 Tilden was the Democratic nominee for the presidency. The bitterly fought campaign ended in a disputed election in which Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon reported two sets of returns. To settle the controversy, an Electoral Commission was created by Congress. Tilden reluctantly consented to the formation of the commission but failed to provide vigorous and direct leadership in the crisis. The commission decided all questions by a strictly partisan vote, thus giving the presidency to the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes. The election between the Democratic candidate, Samuel J. Tilden, and the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes. Tilden won the majority of the popular vote (51% to 48%), but the electoral vote came down to three states in the South, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. It seemed that the Republicans were going to win the states, yet Tilden called it fraud because there is no way the Republicans could win the lower states, which were obviously swaying towards the Democratic side. Overall, the popular votes were so close in those states that it was heavily disputed and very controversial because without winning all states the Republicans couldn't win. It came down to the Compromise of 1877, in which Rutherford came out as the winner of the 1876 election. With a president needed, due to the crisis from the 1876 election when the presidential race between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden came down to the disputed electoral votes of South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, Congress passed the Electoral Count Act that set up a commission to resolve the crisis. This commision would be made up of 15 men (from the House, Senate, and Supreme Court), 8 men were Republicans, 7 were Democrats. The Republicans had the upper hand and were heading toward victory among the disputed states. Democrats were outraged and began to filibuster to tie up the process. Finally, a deal was made in the Compromise of 1877. True to a compromise, both sides did some give-and-take. The North got Rutherford B. Hayes elected as a Republican president. While the South got a pledge that Hayes would remove the military occupation in the South, ending Reconstruction. The bad news for the freedmen was that Southern blacks were now effectively left alone to fend for themselves, despite the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Also, white Southerners began to reclaim a strong hold on power. Additionally, money would be spent on the Texas and Pacific railroad. American political organization that worked from 1869 to 1890 to gain for women the right to vote. Based in Boston, Massachusetts, the association was created by Lucy Stone, Henry, Julia Ward Howe, and others when two factions of the woman suffrage movement split on the issues of tactics, philosophy, and even goals. Considered the more conservative organization, the group encouraged male officers, supported the Republican Party, sought simple enfranchisement, and counted the abolitionists among its ranks. Its members also believed in the necessity of organizing on the state and local levels. They decided they would support the abolitionists and then they could work on getting SUFFRAGE and not necessarily the wholistic picture of the NWSA. They also work at it on a state by state basis because working on a national level sucks, step by step approach. To that end, they drafted a constitution that called for a focus on achieving the vote for women. Concentrating on organizing the state and local levels, the association encouraged auxiliary state societies to be formed and provided an effective grassroots system for the dissemination of information about the woman suffrage movement. After more than two decades of independent operation, the group merged with its more radical sister group to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association. The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837). He gained national fame through his role in the War of 1812, where he won decisive victories over the Indians and then over the main British invasion army at the Battle of New Orleans. His victories led directly to the treaty which formally transferred Florida from Spain to the United States. Nominated for president in 1824, he narrowly lost to John Quincy Adams. Nominated again in 1828, he crusaded against Adams and the "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay he said cost him the 1824 election. As president, he faced a threat of secession from South Carolina over the "Tariff of Abominations" which Congress had enacted under Adams. In contrast to several of his immediate successors, he denied the right of a state to secede from the union, or to nullify federal law. The Nullification Crisis was defused when the tariff was amended and he threatened the use of military force if South Carolina (or any other state) attempted to secede. Jackson's presidency marked the beginning of the ascendency of the "spoils system" in American politics. Also, he supported, signed, and enforced the Indian Removal Act, which unilaterally and forcibly relocated a number of native tribes to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). He faced and defeated Henry Clay in the 1832 Presidential Election, and opposed Clay generally. An American politician and judge during the early 19th century. He served as United States Secretary of War from 1815 to 1816 and United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1816 to 1825, and was a candidate for President of the United States in 1824. He was elected President pro tempore in 1811. When Vice President George Clinton died on April 20, 1812, Crawford, as President pro tempore, became the first "Acting Vice President" until March 4, 1813. Crawford was again a leading candidate for the Democratic-Republican presidential nomination in 1824. However, Crawford was put out of the running because of a paralytic stroke he suffered in 1823 that was brought on by a prescription given to him by his physician. He finished third in the electoral vote, behind John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. He thus was still in the nominal running when the Presidential election ended up in the House of Representatives, due to the provision within the Twelfth Amendment giving a line on the House ballot to each of the top three candidates, but his stroke made him a non-factor there. An American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He also served as a diplomat, a Senator and member of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. He played an important role in negotiating key treaties, most notably the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. As Secretary of State, he negotiated with Britain over the United States' northern border with Canada, negotiated with Spain the annexation of Florida, and drafted the Monroe Doctrine. He is best known as a diplomat who shaped America's foreign policy in line with his ardently nationalist commitment to America's republican values. As president, he sought to modernize the American economy and promote education. He lost his 1828 bid for re-election to Andrew Jackson. Adams was elected a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts after leaving office, serving for the last 17 years of his life with far greater acclaim than he had achieved as president. A term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe his ginger group, the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet (the "parlor cabinet") following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831. Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet included his longtime political allies Martin Van Buren, Francis Preston Blair, Amos Kendall, William B. Lewis, Andrew Jackson Donelson, John Overton, Duff Green, Isaac Hill, and his new Attorney General Roger B. Taney. As newspapermen, Blair and Kendall were given particular notice by rival papers. The party led by Henry Clay during the Two-Party system that arose during Jackson's presidency whom resembled the defunct Federalist Party of Hamilton. They supported the American system, which includes a national bank, federal funds for internal improvements, and a protective tariff. Their major concerns were the crimes associated with immigrants and their major base of voter support was in the New England and the Mid-Atlantic States, the Protestants of English heritage, and with urban professionals. In the election of 1836, they nominated 3 candidates from different regions for presidency hoping to send the election to the House of Representatives, but their strategy failed and Van Buren won in 1836 as a Jacksonian Democrat. In the election of 1840, they won by a landslide by blaming the Democratic economic policy for the Panic of 1837, putting William Henry Harrison in office (for less than one month). Harrison was a popular war hero. John Tyler, the vice president that took office after Harrison died of pneumonia, betrayed the party and vetoed a lot of their bills. By the 1856 election, the party was basically dispersed. Born into slavery in Maryland and knew neither his father nor his exact age. Douglass was denied public education as a child because he was a slave. However, his mistress (Sophia Auld) did secretly teach him to read and write, and he later went on to even teach other slaves how to read. He was able to escape by train (2nd attempt at freedom) after meeting a free black woman (Ann Murray). Douglass disguised himself as a sailor carrying the papers of a free black friend, and succesfully escaped. He went on to become a preacher and became involved with abolitionists.He was an early follower of William Lloyd Garrison, he later advocated both political and direct action to end slavery and racial prejudice. In 1845, Douglass went to tour Britain, following the advice of his abolitionist colleagues, in order to be safer from his former owner and to gain international support for abolition. In 1847, he returned to the US and started the anti slavery journal The North Star. He gave firsthand accounts of the brutality of slavery. This journal not only spread the message supporting abolition, but also supported rights for all races and genders as well. At this point, he ideologically split from William Lloyd Garrison. (1805-1844) founded the Mormon Church; in a series of religious experiences that began in 1820, Smith came to believe that God had singled him out to receive a special revelation of divine truth; in 1830 he published The Book of Mormon, & he proceeded to organize the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; he revived traditional social doctrines such as patriarchal authority within the family & encouraged practices that were central to individual success in the age of capitalist markets & factories-frugality, hard work, & entrepreneurial enterprise; his goal was a church-directed society that would inspire moral perfection; the Mormons eventually settled in Nauvoo, Illinois which, by the 1840's, had become the largest utopian community in the US; Smith refused to abide by any Illinois law of which he didn't approve, asked Congress to turn Nauvoo into a separate federal territory, & declared himself a candidate for president; Smith also claimed to have received a new revelation that justified polygamy; in 1844 Illinois officials arrested Smith & charged him with treason for allegedly conspiring with foreign powers to create a Mormon colony in Mexican territory; an anti-Mormon mob stormed the jail in Carthage, Illinois, where he & his brother were being held, & murdered them 1848. Gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. These early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners," traveled to California by sailing boat and in covered wagons across the continent, often facing substantial hardships on the trip. San Francisco grew from a small settlement to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. A system of laws and a government were created, leading to the admission of California as a state in 1850 wrote the declaration, was a strong advocate for states rights, third president of the united states. He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual with worldwide influence. In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism, Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party. Elected Vice President in 1796, Jefferson opposed Adams, and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw acquisition of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), doubling the size of the United States,, and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806). In 1803, he also initiated a process of Indian tribal removal to the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River, having opened lands for eventual American settlers. In 1807 he drafted and signed into law a bill that banned slave importation into the United States. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr and damaging American trade with an attempted economic warfare with Britain and France through his embargo laws. a letter, printed September 19, 1796, from washington to the people of the united states towards the end of his second term. This address had a few key features, the first of which was announcing to the citizens his resignation. It also warned Americans of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values and told them of his vision for America, unity at home and independence abroad, and how to make the vision come true. It also addressed the idea of Washington being a "republican king," saying yes he might of been, but it was necessary and he will be the only one. It was also a Metaphor for the collective effort that Washington was urging, as it used Madison's 1972 version, Hamilton's 1976-ish version/revisions to Madison's version, and was all of Washington's ideas minus his request for a national university. Female workers who came to work for the textile corporations in Lowell, Massachusetts, during the Industrial Revolution in the United States. The women initially recruited by the corporations were daughters of propertied New England farmers, between the ages of 15 and 30. By 1840, at the height of the Industrial Revolution, the textile mills had recruited over 8,000 women, who came to make up nearly seventy-five percent of the mill workforce. As a result, while factory life would soon come to be experienced as oppressive, it enabled these women to challenge assumptions of female inferiority and dependence. As the nature of the new "factory system" became clear, however, many women joined the broader American labor movement, to protest the dramatic social changes being brought by the Industrial Revolution. First to go on strike (1834 and 1836)... birth of workers rights movements. A convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States. An American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, Founding Father of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1789-95). He was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York City. He joined the New York Committee of Correspondence and organized opposition to British rule, hoping to protect property rights and maintain the rule of law while resisting British violations of human rights. He served as the President of the Continental Congress (1778-79), an honorific position with little power. His major diplomatic achievement was to negotiate favorable trade terms with Great Britain in the Treaty of London of 1794 when he was still serving as Supreme Court Chief Justice. A proponent of strong, centralized government, he worked to ratify the new Constitution in New York in 1788 by pseudonymously writing five of the Federalist Papers, along with the main authors Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. As a leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was the Governor of New York State (1795-1801), where he became the state's leading opponent of slavery. (July 13 of 1787) This ordinance divided western land into specific districts and lowered the price of land to get more people interested in buying. Congress appointed a governor, secretary, and three judges to control every area until they reached a certain population. Only an owner of fifty acres of land could vote, 5,000 adult males means you can elect a general assembly, 60, 000 people means you can apply for statehood. This ordinance also set in republican principles throughout the western territories, trial by jury, habeas corpus, benefits of common law, no slavery, freedom of religion, and proportional representation in legislatures. A national political convention held September 11-14, 1786, at _______, Maryland, in which twelve delegates from five states-New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia-gathered to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected. Other states, minus Connecticut, Maryland, South Carolina and Georgia, appointed commissioners who failed to arrive in Annapolis in time to attend the meeting. At the time, under the Articles of Confederation, each state was largely independent from the others and the national government had no authority to regulate trade between and among the states. The final report of the convention was sent to the Congress and to the states, which asked support for a broader constitutional convention to be held the following May in Philadelphia. It expressed the hope that more states would be represented and that their delegates or deputies would be authorized to examine areas broader than simply commercial trade. People that would, in exchange for the cost of transportation to the New World, contract to labor for a master for a fix term. Most were young, unskilled males, who served for two to seven years, but some were skilled craftsmen, unmarried women, or even orphan children (the latter were expected to serve a master until they reached the age of 21). It wasn't slavery, but these people were treated as cruelly as slaves and 2/5 died during their fixed term. Many who survived and were able to raise the price of passage quickly returned to England. Those who remained became eligible for "freedom dues"--clothing, tools, a gun, or a spinning wheel to help them get started on their own. 1675 An example of the violent potential of the land crisis that also suggested how much serious trouble servants and former servants could make for planters. After this rebellion, English immigrants turned away from the Chesapeake to colonies such as Pennsylvania, where there was more land, and, thus, more opportunity.
Definition from Unit 2: An English-Indian confrontation that mutated into civil war in the Chesapeake because of the old problem of land and labor. When the governor, William Berkley, declined to send the militia against the Indians (adding to the class antagonism), colonists under the leadership of wealthy backcountry planter Nathaniel _______ embarked on unauthorized raids resulting in the indiscriminate murder of many natives, including those allied with the colony. _____ became a hero to former servants, and although Berkeley fumed, he ordered the first elections in many years in an attempt to appease the people. The new assembly--including _____ who was elected by his neighbors--restored the suffrage to freemen without property. But, _____ went further by demanding the death or removal of all Indians from the colony as well as the end to rule of the aristocrat. Berkley fled but was put back in power after the death of ______ killed the rebellion with him.
(1686-1689) An administrative union of English colonies that was imposed by King James in the New England region of North America (which includes: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire). He wanted to expand it eventually to include New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey and put them under one rule as well. By doing so, he's taking away some rights of the people in those colonies, by restricting their voice in their own government. The dominion was unacceptable to most colonists, because they deeply resented being stripped of their traditional rights. Under Governor Sir Edmund Andros, the Dominion tried to make legal and structural changes, but most of these were undone, and the Dominion was overthrown as soon as word was received that King James had left the throne in England. - English effort at centralized control similar to the efforts made by spain, but the colonists deeply resent it and it fails This colony was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn's Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor (Penn), a 72-member Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly. The General Assembly, also known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, but had little power. William Penn and his fellow Quakers heavily imprinted their religious values on the early government. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists and government was initially open to all Christians. Until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no military, few taxes and no public debt. They had made mandated fair dealings with Native Americans. This led to significantly better relations with the local Native tribes than most other colonies had. end of the seven years war, signed by Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal. Great Britain gained much of France's possessions the new world, and agreed to protect roman catholicism
The treaty that ended the Seven Years' War. In this treaty, France lost al its possession on the North American mainland, ceding to Great Britain all its claims east of the Mississippi, with the exception of New Orleans, which was passed to Spain, along with other French claims to the trans-Mississippi region. In exchange for the return of its Caribbean and Pacific colonies, Spain ceded Florida to Britain. Three centuries of European rivalry in eastern North America ended with complete victory for the British Empire.g
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