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Exploring Pschology 7th Edition Meyers Ch 3

Vocabulary
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biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which mesages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
threshhold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapse
the juntion between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap of cleft.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. They bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
endorphines
"morphine within"; natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
nervous system
the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
nerves
bundled axons connect the central nervous system with musceles, glands, and sense organs.
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system to the mucles and glands
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
the skeletal nervous system
automatic nervous system
controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
sympathetic nervous system
part of the nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the automatic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
reflex
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
endocrine system
the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream
hormones
chemical messangers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys.
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system