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the process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, an feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways


the source of the message


the interpeter of the message


this triggers a thought, which in turn triggers the desire to communicate (first requirement for sending a message)


second requirement for sending a message


the process of putting a message into the form in which it will be communicated


the process the receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a message

frame of reference

our own background and experience that we use to encode and decode messages


(summarize in your own words) check the reception of your messages by asking receivers to do this


the symbols that carry the message; language, paralanguage, and nonverbal cues


spoken or written words used to communicate thoughts and emotions


vocal elements that go along with spoken language, including tone of voice, pitch, rate, volume, and emphasis

nonverbal cues

all intentional and unintentional means other than writing or speaking by which a person sends a message


the medium selected to carry the message (EX: face-to-face, phone, email, etc.)

channel richness

the amount of information a channel can convey


the verbal and visual response to a message

descriptive feedback

tactfully honest and objective

evaluative feedback

judgmental and accusatory


includes the time, place, physical and social surroundings


an organization's social and work environment


anything that interferes with communication by distorting or blocking the message


the standards by which behaviors are evaluated for their morality: their rightness or wrongness

four ethical rules

utilitarian rule, moral rights rule, justice rule, practical rule

utilitarian rule

ethical decisions create the greatest good for the greatest number of people

moral rights rule

ethical decisions protect people's fundamental or inalienable rights

justice rule

ethical decisions provide fair and equal treatment for all individuals or groups involved

practical rule

ethical decisions are easy to communicate to society because the typical person would find them acceptable

Formal communication

flows along the official paths prescribed by the organization's chain of command

downward communication

formal messages that flow from managers and supervisors to subordinantes

upward communication

formal messages that flow from subordinates to supervisors and managers

"mum effect"

the desire to conceal bad news, problem in upward communication

horizontal communication

messages flow laterally between people of the same rank

empowered teams

teams with the power to make decisions, adept for difficult problems

informal communication

the grapevine

three types of coordination

mutual adjustment, direct supervision, and standardization

mutual adjustment

involves horizontal communication between peers who meet face-to-face to make work-related decisions

direct supervision

members do not make all their own decisions; instead, a supervisor has the authority to organize and direct their work


specific, written standards for tasks, output levels, skills, and workplace norms

less than 12

effective size for mutual adjustment

12 to 50

effective size for direct supervision

over 50

effective size for standardization

traditional manager

to keep respect you must take control; downward communication; first model that started it all.

human relations manager

The boss feels that employee are better when they are not treated like machines. Family type environment or TLC.

human resources manager

If employees are allowed to participate in decision making then "loving them up" is not needed

systems/contingency manager

No best way to manage, depends on internal factors, culture and situation

transformational manager

believes that organizations that succeed in today's changing market place may well be those that capitalise on diversity and are flexible and are fast at problem solving and operation start up.

multiunit structure

each division is really an autonomous business under the same holding company

virtual structure

a temporary alliance among several companies with different areas of expertise

scientific management (traditional)

4 principles: scientific design of each task, scientific selection of workers, adequate training and rewards for productivity, division of labor and responsibilities

bureaucratic management (traditional)

formal patterns of relationships and roles needed to get tasks accomplished (organizational structure,) division of labor, and chain of command

Fayol's bridge

refers to the method of bypassing the chain of command. Also refers to direct, horizontal communication between poeple in different departments during legitimate crises.

flat organization

with decentralized decision making and fewer levels of hierarchy, handles complex problems more efficiently, communication is less distorted, employee morale and satisfaction are high

tall organizations

with multiple levels and centralized decision making, used by large companies and has greater efficiency in handling uncomplicated tasks, slower communication, and lower employee morale and satisfaction

Theory X

assumes that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. therefore, people must be forced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to accomplish organizational goals

Theory Y

assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.

System 1

Similar to Theory X, exploits employees and uses coercion and few economic rewards.

System 4

supportive relationships based on trust, group decision making and group supervision, and high performance goals. All ranges of communication are used frequently.

open system

has flexible boundaries that allow communication to flow easily in and out of the organization, under systems theory

boundary spanners

the people who link the organization with outsiders, such as salespeople and purchasing agents, in the systems theory

contingency theory

immature theory that explains that no one type of organizational structure or leadership style is most appropriate for all situations

path-goal theory

employees over all job satisfaction and performance levels are contingent on employee satisfaction with the job, the difficultly of the job, and the communication style of the supervisor

theory Z

an application of contingency theory, where the company adapts its management style to the existing employee culture


the patterns of belief and expectations shared by the organization's members, which produce norms that shape the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization

transformational model

new organizational model; concern with information technology and flexibility of decentralized structures; horizontal comm.

multiunit organization

made up of separate, autonomous businesses under the same holding company.

virtual organization

generally a temporary venture among several companies, each with a special expertise or process specialty

Traditional communication

communication is rational, task oriented, formal, and usually written

Human relations communication

though the environment is friendly and relaxed, communication is a command tool for use by management; basically downward, although it is also supportive.

human resources communication

takes a team-oriented approach to communication and relationships; employees are expected to take an active role in all decisions

systems/contingency communication

there is no single best way to manage, and therefore there is no single best way to communicate

transformational communication

horizontal communication is essential in this model among team members and between teams, byt upward, downward, and informal communication is also used.

content marketing

advertising placed on a variety of selected websites aimed at a specific audience EX: will it blend?


mutual liking and interests between people

relationship keys

expectations, reciprocal nature of relationships, and trust


a measure of whether or not people's expectations of what it should be like to work in an organization are being met


a kindness from one person is usually returned in kind

self-fulfilling prophecy

where something that is expected actually occurs


an intangible bond that secures the relationship in the present and prospectively into the future

four communication styles

closed, blind, hidden, and open

closed, blind, hidden, and open

four communication styles


response from others in the form of information, opinions, and feelings


voluntarily sharing information, opinions, and feelings with others


the relationship between disclosure and satisfaction, because satisfaction is low when disclosure is both lo and high, and is best when disclosure is at a moderate level

A-type conflict

refers to the emotional reactions that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional, results in hostility, anger, resentment, and distrust; sidetracks the team from issues

C-type conflict

Disagreement that focuses on problem and issue-related differences of opinion; improves team productivity and relationships and creates feelings of satisfaction.

descriptive feedback

feedback that is tactfully honest and objective

evaluative feedback

feedback that is judgmental and accusatory

avoiding strategy

A lose-lose strategy where individuals attempt to passively ignore the conflict rather than resolve it.

accommodating strategy

A lose-win strategy where individuals attempt to resolve the conflict by passively giving in to the other party.

compromising strategy

A lose-lose strategy with attempts to resolve conflict through assertive give-and-take concessions or cooperation.

competing strategy

A win-losing strategy where an indvidual uses agressive behavior to satisfy one's own needs at the expense of the other person.

collaborating strategy

A win-win strategy where paties attempt to jointly resolve the conflict with the best solution agreeable to all parties.

procedure of collaboration

1. clarify the situation 2. set two conflicting solutions aside 3. guide group to new solutions through brainstorming 4. combine all solutions and choose one

individualistic culture

Emphasizes personal rights and responsibilities, privacy, voicing one's opinion, freedom, innovation and self expression

collectivistic culture

culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations


the information that surrounds an event

low-context culture

messages are clearly spelled out- they are direct and explicit

high-context culture

messages rely only minimally on spoken words that tend to be brief, indirect, and implicit

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