98 terms

Business Communications Test 1

the process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, an feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways
the source of the message
the interpeter of the message
this triggers a thought, which in turn triggers the desire to communicate (first requirement for sending a message)
second requirement for sending a message
the process of putting a message into the form in which it will be communicated
the process the receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a message
frame of reference
our own background and experience that we use to encode and decode messages
(summarize in your own words) check the reception of your messages by asking receivers to do this
the symbols that carry the message; language, paralanguage, and nonverbal cues
spoken or written words used to communicate thoughts and emotions
vocal elements that go along with spoken language, including tone of voice, pitch, rate, volume, and emphasis
nonverbal cues
all intentional and unintentional means other than writing or speaking by which a person sends a message
the medium selected to carry the message (EX: face-to-face, phone, email, etc.)
channel richness
the amount of information a channel can convey
the verbal and visual response to a message
descriptive feedback
tactfully honest and objective
evaluative feedback
judgmental and accusatory
includes the time, place, physical and social surroundings
an organization's social and work environment
anything that interferes with communication by distorting or blocking the message
the standards by which behaviors are evaluated for their morality: their rightness or wrongness
four ethical rules
utilitarian rule, moral rights rule, justice rule, practical rule
utilitarian rule
ethical decisions create the greatest good for the greatest number of people
moral rights rule
ethical decisions protect people's fundamental or inalienable rights
justice rule
ethical decisions provide fair and equal treatment for all individuals or groups involved
practical rule
ethical decisions are easy to communicate to society because the typical person would find them acceptable
Formal communication
flows along the official paths prescribed by the organization's chain of command
downward communication
formal messages that flow from managers and supervisors to subordinantes
upward communication
formal messages that flow from subordinates to supervisors and managers
"mum effect"
the desire to conceal bad news, problem in upward communication
horizontal communication
messages flow laterally between people of the same rank
empowered teams
teams with the power to make decisions, adept for difficult problems
informal communication
the grapevine
three types of coordination
mutual adjustment, direct supervision, and standardization
mutual adjustment
involves horizontal communication between peers who meet face-to-face to make work-related decisions
direct supervision
members do not make all their own decisions; instead, a supervisor has the authority to organize and direct their work
specific, written standards for tasks, output levels, skills, and workplace norms
less than 12
effective size for mutual adjustment
12 to 50
effective size for direct supervision
over 50
effective size for standardization
traditional manager
to keep respect you must take control; downward communication; first model that started it all.
human relations manager
The boss feels that employee are better when they are not treated like machines. Family type environment or TLC.
human resources manager
If employees are allowed to participate in decision making then "loving them up" is not needed
systems/contingency manager
No best way to manage, depends on internal factors, culture and situation
transformational manager
believes that organizations that succeed in today's changing market place may well be those that capitalise on diversity and are flexible and are fast at problem solving and operation start up.
multiunit structure
each division is really an autonomous business under the same holding company
virtual structure
a temporary alliance among several companies with different areas of expertise
scientific management (traditional)
4 principles: scientific design of each task, scientific selection of workers, adequate training and rewards for productivity, division of labor and responsibilities
bureaucratic management (traditional)
formal patterns of relationships and roles needed to get tasks accomplished (organizational structure,) division of labor, and chain of command
Fayol's bridge
refers to the method of bypassing the chain of command. Also refers to direct, horizontal communication between poeple in different departments during legitimate crises.
flat organization
with decentralized decision making and fewer levels of hierarchy, handles complex problems more efficiently, communication is less distorted, employee morale and satisfaction are high
tall organizations
with multiple levels and centralized decision making, used by large companies and has greater efficiency in handling uncomplicated tasks, slower communication, and lower employee morale and satisfaction
Theory X
assumes that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. therefore, people must be forced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to accomplish organizational goals
Theory Y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
System 1
Similar to Theory X, exploits employees and uses coercion and few economic rewards.
System 4
supportive relationships based on trust, group decision making and group supervision, and high performance goals. All ranges of communication are used frequently.
open system
has flexible boundaries that allow communication to flow easily in and out of the organization, under systems theory
boundary spanners
the people who link the organization with outsiders, such as salespeople and purchasing agents, in the systems theory
contingency theory
immature theory that explains that no one type of organizational structure or leadership style is most appropriate for all situations
path-goal theory
employees over all job satisfaction and performance levels are contingent on employee satisfaction with the job, the difficultly of the job, and the communication style of the supervisor
theory Z
an application of contingency theory, where the company adapts its management style to the existing employee culture
the patterns of belief and expectations shared by the organization's members, which produce norms that shape the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization
transformational model
new organizational model; concern with information technology and flexibility of decentralized structures; horizontal comm.
multiunit organization
made up of separate, autonomous businesses under the same holding company.
virtual organization
generally a temporary venture among several companies, each with a special expertise or process specialty
Traditional communication
communication is rational, task oriented, formal, and usually written
Human relations communication
though the environment is friendly and relaxed, communication is a command tool for use by management; basically downward, although it is also supportive.
human resources communication
takes a team-oriented approach to communication and relationships; employees are expected to take an active role in all decisions
systems/contingency communication
there is no single best way to manage, and therefore there is no single best way to communicate
transformational communication
horizontal communication is essential in this model among team members and between teams, byt upward, downward, and informal communication is also used.
content marketing
advertising placed on a variety of selected websites aimed at a specific audience EX: will it blend?
mutual liking and interests between people
relationship keys
expectations, reciprocal nature of relationships, and trust
a measure of whether or not people's expectations of what it should be like to work in an organization are being met
a kindness from one person is usually returned in kind
self-fulfilling prophecy
where something that is expected actually occurs
an intangible bond that secures the relationship in the present and prospectively into the future
four communication styles
closed, blind, hidden, and open
closed, blind, hidden, and open
four communication styles
response from others in the form of information, opinions, and feelings
voluntarily sharing information, opinions, and feelings with others
the relationship between disclosure and satisfaction, because satisfaction is low when disclosure is both lo and high, and is best when disclosure is at a moderate level
A-type conflict
refers to the emotional reactions that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional, results in hostility, anger, resentment, and distrust; sidetracks the team from issues
C-type conflict
Disagreement that focuses on problem and issue-related differences of opinion; improves team productivity and relationships and creates feelings of satisfaction.
descriptive feedback
feedback that is tactfully honest and objective
evaluative feedback
feedback that is judgmental and accusatory
avoiding strategy
A lose-lose strategy where individuals attempt to passively ignore the conflict rather than resolve it.
accommodating strategy
A lose-win strategy where individuals attempt to resolve the conflict by passively giving in to the other party.
compromising strategy
A lose-lose strategy with attempts to resolve conflict through assertive give-and-take concessions or cooperation.
competing strategy
A win-losing strategy where an indvidual uses agressive behavior to satisfy one's own needs at the expense of the other person.
collaborating strategy
A win-win strategy where paties attempt to jointly resolve the conflict with the best solution agreeable to all parties.
procedure of collaboration
1. clarify the situation 2. set two conflicting solutions aside 3. guide group to new solutions through brainstorming 4. combine all solutions and choose one
individualistic culture
Emphasizes personal rights and responsibilities, privacy, voicing one's opinion, freedom, innovation and self expression
collectivistic culture
culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations
the information that surrounds an event
low-context culture
messages are clearly spelled out- they are direct and explicit
high-context culture
messages rely only minimally on spoken words that tend to be brief, indirect, and implicit