45 terms

History Midterm Review

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Terms in this set (...)

Samuel Slater
Brought plans from Britain to the US ; started the Industrial Revolution here in the US
Transportation Revolution
included steamboat and steam train; made transportation cheaper and faster (but sometimes dangerous!)
Nat Turner
led a slave rebellion
Textile Industry
production of cloth; required cotton from the south
Cotton gin
increased the demand for slavery because of increased need for cotton for the textile industry. Invented by Eli Whitney.
Mass production
made possible with the invention of interchangeable parts
Manifest Destiny
America's God-given right to expand from Atlantic to Pacific. It was reached in 1853 with the Gadsden Purchase - still not all 50 states!
Spanish Cession
Florida - gained after 1st Seminole War (South eastern US) - Monroe was President
Positives of US Expansion
size of USA doubled, allowed for population growth, gave more resources, better access for shipping (ex. New Orleans)
Negatives of US Expansion
unfair to Native Americans, many died in battles, wagon trains westward were dangerous and many died.
MAP
You will need to identify the following on the map: Florida, Louisiana Territory, Texas, Mexican Cession, Original 13 states, Oregon Territory, Gadsden Purchase, Land received from Great Britain at end of Revolutionary War
George Washington
1st President
Helped create national bank with Hamilton
Set Precedent of only 2 terms
James Monroe
President who acquired Florida from Spain
Warned Europeans about colonizing in the Americas
William Henry Harrison
Known for the Log Cabin Campaign
Tippecanoe and Tyler too!
Henry Clay
Speaker of the House who helped create the Missouri Compromise.
Pushed for an American System to improve roads and raise tariffs on imported goods. and build canals
12th Amendment
Changed presidential elections - president and vice president ran on one ticket, and electoral College process was refined
XYZ Affair
3 French agents attempted to bribe the U.S and secure a 12 million dollar loan
Impressment
The act of forcing Americans to serve in the British Navy
U.S Neutrality during War of 1803
Caused Britain and France to attack US ships to prevent them from trading with the enemy
Embargo Act
Banned all trade with foreign nations. It was designed to hurt the British and French, but hurt the American merchants most of all.
Election of 1796
First election with two political parties: The Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans
Critics of Alien and Sedition Acts
Democratic-Republicans believed that these acts prevented free speech (first amendment) and could lead to too much government power
What experiences before the war helped Washington become a good leader?
Washington fought in the French and Indian War, was General of the Continental Army (winning the war), and led the Constitutional Convention
What was a "loose constructionist"
A person who believed that government could do anything that wasn't FORBIDDEN in the Constitution.
What was a "strict" constructionist?
A person who believed that the government could ONLY do what was spelled out in the Constitution
What precedents (examples) did Washington set for later presidents?
Washington limited his presidency to only two terms - even though people wanted him to stay on.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned the people pf the dangers of political parties (dividing the nation), national debt, and gettinng involved in other countries' affairs (alliances)
Articles of Confederation
The first government of the US
Articles of Confederation Weaknesses
No President - They thought this was a strength... but turned out to be a weakness!
No trade rules
No official currency (money)
No power to tax
No national army or courts
Shay's Rebellion
Massachusetts revolt led by farmers trying to protect their land. This showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation
New Jersey Plan
Unicameral (one house)
Small state plan
Each state had equal voice (led to today's Senate)
Virginia Plan
Bicameral (two house)
Large state plan
Representation based on population.(led to today's House)
Three Fifths Compromise
Agreement to allow 3 out of every 5 slaves to count toward a state's population
Great Compromise
Agreement between the large and small states to create our legislative branch. This led to the Constitution.
Separation of Powers
Divided our government into three branches so that no branch becomes too powerful
Legislative - Makes laws
Executive - Enforces laws
Judicial - Judges laws
inauguration
the act of swearing in a president that has already been elected
precedent
an en example set for those who follow
War of 1812
Fought between US and Britain
Andrew Jackson
"killed" the Second Bank of the United States
Spoils System
the system of rewarding political supporters with jobs
Underground Railroad
a system of hidden trails to help slaves escape
Abolitionist
someone opposed to slavery
Challenges of forming a new government
Be able to discuss the problems and how they were solved
Manifest Destiny
Be able to discuss what it was, what was gained, what people were important, positives and negatives
North and South
Explain differences, key people, effects of the differences, and what the result was