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Substitution Syllable structure Assimilation

Unstressed Syllable Deletion

omission of one or more syllables from a polysyllabic word


doubling; partial or total repetition of a syllable of a target word


addition of /i/ or /Consonant i/ to the target word


insertion of an unstressed vowel , usually the schwa / ə/ between to consonant

Final consonant deletion

omission of a final singleton consonant in a word as well as a deletion of all members of a final consonant cluster

Initial Consonant Deletion

omission of a singleton consonant in the word initial position; unsual

Cluster Reduction

cluster deletion and cluster substitution

Cluster deletion

2 sounds become 1; partial PCR or total TCR deletion of one or all members of a consonant cluster

Cluster substitution

same # of sounds: replacement of one or all members of a cluster by another sound


substitution of stops for affricates and fricatives
usually /p/ /t/ /b/ /d/


replacement of an affricate - /tf/ /dʒ/ - for a stop or fricative

Velar Fronting

replacment of velars - /k/ /g/ /ŋ/ - by sounds that are made more anteriorly like an alveolar stop t/k d/g n/ŋ


substitution of an alveolar fricative - /s/ /z/ - for a palatal fricative - /ʃ/ /ʒ/


replacement of sounds with an anterior point of constriction by posterior sounds k/t g/d ŋ/n

liquid gliding

substitution of a glide - /w/ /j/ - for a prevocalic liquid - /l/ / r/


substitution of a vowel for a syllabic liquid

labial assimilation

non-labial consonant becomes a labial because of the influence of another sound in the word

velar assimilation

a non-velar sound is changed to a velar sound because of another velar in the word - /k/ /g/ /n/ /w/

Nasal assimilation

a non-nasal sound becomes a nasal becuase of another nasal in a word

alveolar assimilation

a non-alveolar sound is changed to a n alveolar sound because of the influence of another alveolar sound

prevocalic voicing

a voiceless sound preceding a vowel becomes voiced

postvocalic devoicing

a voiced obstruent (stops, fricatives, affricates) following a vowel becomes voiceless

phonological processes

1) syllabic structure process
2) substitution process
3) assimilation process

Syllabic structure process

sound changes that modify the syllabic structures of a word

Substitution Process

one class of sounds is substituted for another class of sounds

Assimilation process

one sound changes to become like another neighboring sound

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