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DNA And Replication Test
Terms in this set (30)
One piece of a string of DNA made up of a phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Each nucleotides sugar connects with the phosphorous of the next nucleotide. Phosphates and sugars are bound together in a covalent bond.
Backbone Of Ladder
8U7Vhe backbone of ladder on the string of DNA. It is made of alternating Phosphates and Sugars bound by covalent bonds.
Rungs Of Ladder
The nitrogenous bases; one from each string of DNA paired A-T and C-G connected by hydrogen bonds that form the double helix of DNA.
The shape and structure of a DNA molecule used to described the 2 shapes of DNA that are connected and twisted to make DNA's shape.
When DNA is replicated the nitrogenous bases on the old string of DNA are used like a mold because A only pairs with T and C only pairs with G. So the new string of DNA is made and filled in; in an anti-parallel way because the old string is opposite to what the new string looks like.
The bonds that connect phosphate and sugars in a DNA backbone.
Hydrogen bonds are what connect the base pairs, and their not strong bonds because if they were they would be very hard to take apart which needs to happen during replication so that each DNA strand can be used as a mold for the new one.
Consists of 2 molecules (Nucleic Acids) wrapped around each other to form a double helix. A double helix is like a twisted ladder.
What Are The 4 Nitrogenous Bases?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
What Are The Base Pair Rules?
Xray pattern of DNA molecule by Rosalind Franklin led to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
Watson And Crick And Chargaff
Also made a DNA model and won the Nobel prize for it.
DNA is packaged into chromosomes.
Most of the time, DNA appears as chromatin in the nucleus. When the cell gets ready to divide the DNA packs even more tightly to form even more chromosomes.
Before a cell divides it duplicates its DNA by a process called replication. The DNA molecule separates or unzips into two strands. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template or model for the new strand.
The enzyme that unwinds the double helix.
Adds complementary nucleotides to produce new DNA strands.
Each Time A Cell Divides What Must It Do?
It must first copy the genetic information contained within its nucleus.
If Cells Had To Do This Manually, Like You Just Did, About How Long Would It Take?
Over 95 years.
In Reality, About How Long Does It Take A Cell To Do This?
How Do Your Cells Speed Up This Process?
In order to speed up the copying process, DNA replication begins at multiple locations along each chromosome.
A model for the new DNA strand.
Produces New DNA strands.
Why does DNA need to be stored, copied and transmitted?
DNA needs to be stored because it holds or contains the genetic information for every living cell and how the organisms will develop. DNA needs to be copied so that it can go on to the next generation when a cell divides so that every cell has all the information that is stored in DNA. DNA needs to be transmitted so that all the DNA'S genetic information can be correctly transmitted from one generation to the next.
How are the nucleotides in ONE strand of DNA connected?
Nucleotides are connected in one strand of DNA by the strong hold of covalent bonds. The covalent bods are formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next.
What is Chargaff's rule?
Chargaff's rule states that A=T and G=C meaning that the percentages of these bases are almost equal in any sample of DNA.
How do the bases on either side f the double helix bond with each other? In other words, how do A-T, G-C pairs stay together?
DNA is a double Helix which is two strands of DNA that run anti-parallel or in opposite directions which allows the Nitrogenous bases on both strands to come into contact with the center of the molecule. Nitrogenous bases are perfectly fitted or paired because they are held together by weak hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds can be pulled apart which is important since the strands of DNA need to be able to be separated for DNA'S function.
How is DNA replicated?
Each DNA strand is complementary because it has all the information needed to make the other half by the mechanism of base pairing because each base can only pair with one and only one base on the opposite strand. Replication is the copying process of DNA that happens before a cell divides. During replication, the DNA molecule untwists and separates into two strands and then produces two new complementary strands using the rules of base pairing. Each original strand serves as a template or model for the new strand. This results in two identical DNA molecules, which is also identical to the original one. Each of the new DNA molecules has one original strand and one new strand.
What are two roles of DNA polymerase in replication?
It is the enzyme that joins and pairs up nucleotides and joins them in a sugar-phosphate bond to make up the new strand of DNA. Proof reads each strand of DNA to make sure it's a copy of the original DNA strand.
When a DNA molecule is replicated, how do the new molecules compare to the original molecule?
They are two identical DNA molecules, which is also identical to the original one. Each of the new DNA molecules has one original strand and one new strand.
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