5th Gr WEATHER UNIT Terms

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Precipitation
Forms of water that fall from the cloud to the Earth. What is "C" in this image?
Prevailing Westerlies
Winds that occur between 30 degrees and 60 degrees in both hemispheres; blow from WEST to EAST; blow TOWARD POLES.
Angle of incidence
Angle at which the sunlight hits the Earth (more intensity = warmer)
Barometer
Instrument used to measure AIR PRESSURE
Potential energy
Which type of energy in this picture represents "Stored energy"?
Polar Easterlies
Winds that occur between 60 degrees and 90 degrees in both hemispheres; blow from EAST to WEST; blow AWAY from the POLES
Radiation
Movement of heat in electromagnetic waves through air or space (ex. sunlight travelling through space, light bulb emitting heat, campfire, microwave heating food)
Anemometer
Instrument used to measure WIND SPEED
Cirrus Clouds
High clouds made mostly of ICE CRYSTALS. THIN and WISPY. Usually associated with fair weather. May mean that a change in weather may occur.
Wind vane
Instrument used to measure WIND DIRECTION
Wind speed
wind flow velocity - changes as air pressure changes
Barometric (air) pressure
What is it called when the weight of the air above the surface of the Earth applies pressure on objects?
Windward
the side of the mountain facing the wind; air is pushed up by the mountain; it cools, condenses, and precipitates frequently
Wind direction
reported by the direction from which wind originates; prevailing westerly winds blow from the west to east. A weather vane can report wind direction.
Climate
Weather over a long period of time
Cloud cover
fraction of the sky covered by clouds
Collection
When precipitation accumulates in a body of water, in the ground, or as runoff to a body of water
Condensation
changing from water vapor to liquid
Conduction
Heat transfer between two objects that are in direct contact. (Ex. touching hand of hot metal pot)
Cumulonimbus Clouds
These are a type of cumulus cloud. They are TALL and bring THUNDERSTORMS and sometimes HAIL. These clouds are often called thunderclouds or thunderheads.
Cumulus Clouds
Look PILED UP and PUFFY, almost like a COTTON BALL. Can produce light rain or snow showers. Usually means fair weather.
Direct sunlight
Sun rays that strike the Earth in a straight line (most direct insense rays are at the Equator).
Earth's Axis
Imaginary, vertical line through the middle of the Earth; Earth rotates around it; Earth is tilted at 23 degrees.
Elevation
Height of a place above sea level
Hemisphere
Half a sphere; the Earth has four hemispheres: Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western
Ground water
Water stored in soil and rock beneath Earth's surface
Global winds
moves great distances over the globe; predictable and stable (Polar Easterlies, Prevailing Westerlies, Trade Winds)
Evaporation
changing from liquid to water vapor
Equator
Imaginary horizontal line around the middle of the Earth
Land breeze
Air flows FROM LAND TO SEA during the NIGHTTIME
Kinetic energy
Energy of MOTION
Jet Stream
Air current in the upper atmosphere; located above North America; flows from west to east.
Indirect sunlight
Sun rays that strike the Earth at an angle (most indirect, least intense rays are at North and South pole)
Leeward
facing the direction to which the wind is blowing; the drier side of the mountain
Latitude
Distance north or south of the equator
Hygrometer
Instrument used to measure HUMIDITY
Local wind
Moves across small distances close to the Earth's surface; unpredictable
Water vapor
water in a gas state
Transpiration
water evaporating from plant leaves
Trade winds
winds that occur between 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South; blow from EAST TO WEST; blow continuously TOWARD EQUATOR
Thermometer
instrument used to measure temperature in Fahrenheit or Celsius
Wind
horizontally moving air; caused by uneven heating of the Earth's surface
Sea level
where the ocean meets the land; zero elevation
Stratus clouds
these clouds from LAYERS. These clouds that are near the groud are called FOG. These clouds often produce rain or snow. These are the LOWEST clouds in the sky.
Sun
What is the driving force of weather?
Temperature
degrees warm or cold; influenced by cloud cover
Thermal energy
total potential and kinetic energy in an object
Rotation
SPIN - Earth spins on its own axis - Earth rotates COUNTERCLOCKWISE on its axis (1 rotation=23 hours, 56 minutes= 1 day)
Runoff
excess water that the ground cannot absorb
Sea breeze
air flows from sea to land during the daytime
Revolution
orbit; the Earth revolves around the Sun
Rain gauge
instrument used to measure amount of rain over a specific period of time
Water cycle
continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere (hydrologic cycle)
Meteorologist
scientist who studies the weather
longitude
distance west or east of the Prime Meridian
local wind
moves across small distances close to Earth's surface; unpredictable (sea breezes, land breezes)

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