APUSH Chapter 19 Brinkley
From Stalemate to Crisis
Terms in this set (52)
Republican party voters
White and black northerns, protestants, middle class. They most wanted to restrict immigration and supported temperance legislature which Catholic and immigrants viewed as a direct assault to their cultures.
Democratic party Voters
White Southerns wanted to preserve white supremacy, Catholics, immigrants, poorer workers
One of the 2 factions competing for the control of the Republican Party. Captained by James G. Blaine, they favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
James G. Blaine
champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination,highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland). he lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
A faction of the Republican party led by Roscoe Conkling in the ends of the 1800s. Supported the traditional, professional machine politics and patronage. Conservatives who hated civil service reform; supported Cleveland
a politician from New York; He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor; the term was coined by Mark Twain
Civil War Pension System
money to veterans and their widows; not made permanent because party patronage and corruption
Rutherford B. Haye's wife; leading founder of Women's Temperence Movements which did away with alcohol; she forbade alcohol to be served in the White House
Election of 1880
James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur (republicans) vs.Winfield Scott (democrats). Garfield won election, but was assassinated and Arthur took over
Chester A. Arthur
close ally of Roscoe Conkling, was corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president; Republican Stalwart. he ended up keeping most of Garfield's appointees and supported civil service reform.
The Spoils System
Employed by Jackson. System by which the victorious political party rewarded its supporters with government jobs.
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
First national civil service measure passed in 1883. The Act created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on competitive written exams rather than patronage
Election of 1884
Republicans nominated Blaine as president but suspicions about his honesty led the Mugwumps (liberal Republicans) to campaign for Democratic nominee Grover Cleveland (honest, frugal, enemy of corruption) who won
Winner of 1884 election; democrat; supported tariffs reduction.
Liberal Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate, James Blaine.
Sherman Antitrust Act
passed without dissent , an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States; virtually no impact
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history; caused backlash that cost Republicans votes in the 1890 congressional election
Election of 1892
James Weaver of Iowa, was the Populist candidate lost badly in the South and failed to attack urban workers in the North; Harrison (republican) vs. Cleveland again and Cleveland won because of the unpopularity of the high-tax McKinley tariff (first president to serve two unconsecutive terms)
Republican, 23rd President; won the election of 1888 against Democrat Cleveland. obscure but respectable leader, endorsed protection (higher tariffs) introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
tariff passed by Cleveland weakened by senate, it included only a few very modest reductions.
1886, Wabash St. Louis and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois, ruled one of the Granger Laws in Illinois unconstitutional as it was an attempt to control interstate commerce. supreme court limited the power of States to regulate commerce even within their own boundaries.
Interstate Commerce Act
in 1887 Congress passed the Act which banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls, required that railroads published their rate schedules and file them with the government and declared that all interstate rates must be reasonable and just.
Interstate Commerce Commision
5-person agency that was to administer act but had to rely on court to enforce rulings; haphazardly enforced act as result
First major farm organization that appeared in the 1860's. Originally called the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, was organized in 1867, by leader Oliver H. Kelley. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers. By 1875 because of the 1873 depression which caused major declines in farm prices,membership rapidly increased, and the Grangers began to focus more on the economic possibilities, by organizing marketing cooperatives to help farmers to skip the hated middlemen, and strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.
considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.
successor to the Grange as the leading vehicle of agrarian protest. began to emerge in 1875 when farmers mostly in the South (most notably in Texas), banned together to tackle local problems; established stores, banks, processing plants, and other facilities for members; they argued for a sense of mutual, neighborly responsibility that would enable farmers to resist oppressive outside forces. The Alliances were also notable for the prominent role played by women.
A fiery speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
began in 1874 when two men in Chautauqua Lakes, NY, established a series of "Assemblies" for the instruction of Sunday school teachers. in a few years Assemblies had expanded to include lectures on literary, scientific, theological and practical subjects. The movement emerged because of the thirst for knowledge among America farmers.
in 1890 the Alliances held a National convention in Ocala, Florida and issued the so called Ocala Demands, effectively a Party platform called for the abolition of national banks, the creation of federal sub-treasuries that would provide low-interest loans to farmers against the value of their crops (party platform in 1890 election)
People's Party (populists)
Created in 1892 in Omaha Nebraska, Started as Farmer's Alliance, farmers came together and became organized, . Wanted to unite farmers of south/west/poor blacks and whites and industrial/factory workers. James B. Weaver of Iowa received the Party nomination after the death of Leonidas Polk.
Populism appealed principally to small farmers with little long-range economic security, people whose operations were minimally mechanized, who relied on one crop and who had access only to limited mechanism of credit. Populists tended to be economically and culturally marginal. Populists failed to attract Labor groups even though they added a labor plank to their platform calling for shorter hours for workers and restrictions on immigration.
the idea of permitting silver to become along with gold the basis of the currency so as to expand the money supply. Supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Alliances accepted African-American members.
Most white Populists were willing to accept the help of African-Americans as long as it was clear that whites would remain in control. When southern conservatives began to attack the populists for undermining white supremacy, the interracial character of the movement faded.
the 1892 platform spelled out the reform program of the Populist Party.Proposed a system of "subtreasuries" to replace the cooperatives. the government would establish a network of warehouses where farmers could deposit their crops and use those crops as collateral to borrow money from the government at low rates and wait for the prices to go up to sell their crops. they called for the abolition of national banks; the end of absentee ownership of land; direct election of US senators; they demanded a system of government operated postal savings banks, a graduated income tax and the inflation of the currency. repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
Crime of '73
in 1870 the value of the silver to gold for the purpose of creating currency was lower than the silver commercial value, therefore silver owners could get more by selling silver for manufacture into jewlery and other objects than they would by taking it to the mint for conversion to coins, so they stopped taking it to the mint and the mint stopped coining silver. in 1873 Congress passed a law officially discontinuing silver coinage. Many Americans concluded that a conspiracy of big bankers was responsible for the demonetization of silver and referred to the law as the "crime of '73".
Depression/ Panic of 1893
It began in March 1893 when the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad unable to meet payments on loans, declared bankruptcy. two months later the National Cordage Company also declared bankruptcy. Together they triggered the collapse of the stock market and since many NY banks were investors in the market, it triggered also a wave of bank failures which caused a contraction of credit which meant that businesses heavily loan dependent also went bankrupt. there was a slight economic improvement in 1895 but prosperity didn't return until 1901.
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, advocating a massive public works program to create jobs and inflation of the currency.
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by stated amounts of two metals (usually gold and silver) with values set at a predetermined ratio
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
It required the treasury to purchase (but not to coin) silver and to pay for it in gold. thus draining gold reserves
William H. Harvey's Coin's Financial School
book taught Americans that the depression was caused by conspiracy of rich bankers and that prosperity would return if only the government coined silver in unlimited quantities
Election of 1896
Republican leaders were confident to win because of Cleveland failure to deal with the depression. party leaders chose William McKinley to run and he defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans. the republican platform opposed the free coinage of silver and supported higher tariffs.
Republican, 25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
William Jennings Bryan
politician who ran for president; populist leader advocated free silver. Defeated by McKinley in 1896 elections.
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan's famous speech in support of free silver. Criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; said in the speech that farmers were being crucified on a cross of gold. The convention voted to adopt the pro-silver platform. Bryan was nominated for President.
McKinley's administration immediately began working on this tariff, which raised duties to the highest point in American history. Supported by big northern industries and businesses
Currency Act (Gold Standard Act of 1900)
Confirmed the nation's commitment to the gold standard by assigning a specific gold value to the dollar and required all currency issued by U.S. to adhere to that value; passed by republicans.
Pan-American Conference (1889)
first headed by Blaine and held in Washington, D.C.; led to the formulation of a plan for reciprocal tariff reduction and the beginnings of long and increasingly important inter-American relations
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
Election of 1900
The Republicans nominated William McKinley on a platform that advocated imperialism while the Democrats chose Willima J. Bryan on a platform of free silver. During the election, the Republicans professed tha free silver would end U.S. prosperity. McKinley won the election with an overwhelming victory in the urban areas.