44 terms

ch 1 & 2 history

Culture- a peoples unique way of life.
Why did scientist think homohablis used tools and how did they use them and what tools did they use?
researchers found tools made of lava rock near homo habilis and was thought to be used for cutting meat and broken bones.
What are the 5 stages of Hominid development?
1.Australopithecines- 4 millian yrs. ago
2.Homo habilis-3 millian yrs. ago
3.Homo erectus- 2 millian yrs ago
4. Neanderthal- 1 millian yrs. ago
5. Cro-magnon- present
Why were homosapiens called wise men?
they much resembled the ancester species;homo erectus, but with a much larger brain.
Who were named and why were they described as ancestors of modern humans?
Cro-magnons emerge as ancestors to the modern human, because their skeleton remains show that they are identical to modern humans.
The role fire played in the lives of these early humans.
Homo erectus were the first to use fire that provided warmth in cold climates, cooked food, & frightened away attacking animals.
Bones tell us many things about early humans- What are some of those things?
They explain how the humans developed. and that they originated in Africa and spread across the globe. also when they were alive
What were the major achievements of early humans?
skills and tools for surviving and adapting to their enviorment
Artifacts-Human made objects, Tools and Jewelry.
Humans and other creatures that walk upright.
2.5 million to 8000 B.C, Old stone age, people made use of crude stone tools and weapons.
began 8000 B.C ended early 3000 B. C. second stone age learned to poligh stone tools, make pottery, grow crops & raise animals.
Modern Human-wise man had much larger brains.
Fertile crescent
an arc of fertile farmland in S.W. asis between the persiaan gulf and the Mediterranian Sea.
City State
a city & its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit.
Land between the two rivers
The belief in more than one god.
The babylonian Empire reached its peak during the reign of Hammurabi, from 1792-1750 B.C. , his most enjuring legacy is the code of laws he put together. He recongnised that a uniform code of laws would unify the deverse groups groups within the empire.
Cultural Diffusion
The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another.
Environmental Challenge of Sumerians include
Good soil was an advantage, However there was also disadvantages...unpredictable flooding, No natural barriers for protection, the natural resources of sumer wer limited. Building materials and other necessary items were scarse.
Understand Hunter -gatherers nomadic life.
Nomads were highlymobile people who moved from place to place foraging, or searching for new sources of food.
Understand the invention of tools and their importance their role played.
Tools made the task of survival easier.
Sumers natural environment.
The belief systems, social structure, technology, and arts of the sumerians reflected their civilizations triumph over its dry and harsh enviorment.
Understand organized government and how it started.
Hammerabi inacted a code of laws.
The prologue of the code set out the goals for the body of law. It reinforced the principle that government had a responsibility for what occured in society.
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader.
a government in which the ruler is viewed as a devine figure.
an ancient Egypian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds.
Ganges River
The Ganges is 1557 miles long
a tall reed that grows in the Nile delta, used by the ancient Egyptians to make a paperlike material for writing on.
a process of embalming and drying corpses to privent them from decaying.
a large landmass that forms a distinct part of a continent.
a wind that shifts in direction at certain times of each year.
Harappan Civilization
another name for the Indus Valley civilization that arose along the Indus river, possibly as early as 7000 B.C. characterized by sophisticated city planning.
Indus Valley Culture
ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan.
Shang Dynasty
1600-1046 BC. Shang society was stratified: it included a king, local governors, nobles, and the masses, who engaged in agriculture. The Shang developed a 12-month, 360-day calendar with intercalary months added as necessary.
Zhou Dynasty
During the Zhou dynasty, iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows, and horseback riding were introduced; large-scale irrigation projects were instituted; the Chinese writing system was further developed
What were the two river systems
The rivers framing Mesoopotamia are the Tigris and Euphates. They flow southeastward to the persian gulf.
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service and protection of thepeople who live on the land
a fertile deposit of the windblown soil.
Mandate of Heaven
the devine approval thought to bew the basis of royal authority.
Dynastic Cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynastis.
One who works on or operates a farm.
How did the deserts benefit Egypt
The deserts shut out invaders. For much of the early history, Egypt was spared the constant warfare the plagued the fertile crescent.
Understand the concept of planned cities of the Indus Valley
ancient city dwellers depended on trade, Farmers merchants, and traders brought goods to market in the cities. The city swellers themseves produced a variety of goods for exchange.
Culture- a peoples unique way of life.