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190 terms

life span development chapter 1 quiz review

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development
the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span . involves growth, and includes decline brought on by aging and dying
life-span perspective
says the development is life long, multidimensional, multideirectional, plastic, multidisciplinarym and contextural m involes growthm maintenance, and regulation, and is constructed though biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together
multidimentional development
age you body, mind, your emotions, and relationships
multidirectional development
some dinmensions will expand and contract, ex a language is acuqired early in development, capacity for learning a new one decreases in later life
Development is plastic or plasticity
capacity to change
Contextual development
context: family, eers, schoools, cities, neighbohoods, university, and so on. Settings.
Multidisiplinary dev. in developmental science
psychologist, sociologists, anthropologist, neuroscientist, and medical researchers
normative age-graded influences
influences that are similar for indiv in a part grp
normative history graded influences
influences that are common to peo;e of a particular generation due to historical circumstances
normative life events
unusual occurances with a big impact
culture
BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, BELIEFS, AND OTHER PRODUCTS OF A GROUP PASSED ON FROM GERATION TO GERAION
cross-cultural studies
comparison of 1 culture to another
ethnicity
a characteristic based on cultural heritag, nationalitly race , religion and lanuage
socioeconomic status
refers to the grouping people with similar status
gender
male or female
social policy
gov'ts cours of action to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Biological process
changes in an ind., physical nature
Cognitive process
change in ind. thought mintelligence, and language
Socioemotional processes
change in a ind. relationship with others emotions, and personality
Nature vs nature
suggests that either genetics(nature) or the enviornment (nature) played a role in producing behavior, traits, disorders, or anything human.
stability-change issue
involves the degree to whcih early traits and characteristics persist through life or change .... traits/characterists remain the same --> the can change (personality, temperament)
continuity-discontinuity issue
Focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
psychoanalytical theories
freudian- describes development as unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. behavior is merely a surface characteristic
scientific method
4 step process: 1) have a subject 2)collect and research data 3)analyze data 4)draw conclusion
theory
an interrealated, set of ideas that help explain phenomena and make predictions
hypothesis
specific assetions and predictions that can be tested
Ericksons theory(psychosocial
Believed in 8 stages of dev. each stage consists of unique task that confronts ind. with a crisis that must be resolved
Frued theories
oral, anal, phalic, latency, genital
piagets theory(discontinuity stand)
states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitve devolpment
Piagets sensorimotor stage
b-2 - lacks mental representation or object permanence
Piagets 2nd stage:
Preoperational- 2-7 Language stage, have object permanence -egocentric(world revolves around them) unable to conserve(or think or two things similtaniously
Piagets 3rd stage
Concrete operational- 7-11
conserves(can think of 2 or more things) logical reasoning,
Piagets 4th stage of dev.
Formal operational 11-adult
abstract concepts
PKU
a genetic disorder of metabolism, A human metabolic disease caused by a mutation in a gene coding for a phenylalanine processing enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase), which leads to accumulation of phenylalanine and mental retardation if not treated; inherited as an autosomal recessive phenotype.
Continuity
Gradual or lifelong change
Continuity
Gradual or lifelong change
Discontinuity
change occurs in stages of development
Discontinuity
change occurs in stages of development
EGO
involves how development occurs thru: emotional, problem solving , control
EGO
involves how development occurs thru: emotional, problem solving , control
Ericsons stages of develpment are classified as:
Psychosocial Development in 8 separate stages.in which a crisis or task must be addressed.
Ericsons stages of develpment are classified as:
Psychosocial Development in 8 separate stages.in which a crisis or task must be addressed.
Ericksons 1st stage
Trust vs. mistrust: B-1yr. (critical for ego, and is the foundation for later relationships)
Ericksons 1st stage
Trust vs. mistrust: B-1yr. (critical for ego, and is the foundation for later relationships)
Ericksons 2nd stage:
Autonomy vs. Shame: 1-3: stage of independance, when child disovers behaviour is their own
Ericksons 2nd stage:
Autonomy vs. Shame: 1-3: stage of independance, when child disovers behaviour is their own
Ericksons 3rd stage of dev:
Initiatvie vs., Guilt 3-5 yrs: Initiative: playing house, building , ect. Guilt: saying the picture is not good
Ericksons 3rd stage of dev:
Initiatvie vs., Guilt 3-5 yrs: Initiative: playing house, building , ect. Guilt: saying the picture is not good
Ericksons 4th stage of develop:
Industry vs Inferiority: 5-11 yrs: mastering knowledge and intellectual skills, negative outcome is inferiority:made to feel bad,dsruptive child, off task
Ericksons 4th stage of develop:
Industry vs Inferiority: 5-11 yrs: mastering knowledge and intellectual skills, negative outcome is inferiority:made to feel bad,dsruptive child, off task
Ericksons 5th stage of dev
Identity vs. Role confusion: 12-18, child develops identity, finding who they are and what they want
Ericksons 5th stage of dev
Identity vs. Role confusion: 12-18, child develops identity, finding who they are and what they want
Ericsons 6th stage of dev.
Intimacy vs. Isolation: 18-40: relationship or not
Ericsons 6th stage of dev.
Intimacy vs. Isolation: 18-40: relationship or not
Erikson7th stage of dev.:
Genertivity vs Stagnation: 40-50, middle adulthood, looking beyond self, thinking about future, involved im community, neg outcome: stagnation
Erikson7th stage of dev.:
Genertivity vs Stagnation: 40-50, middle adulthood, looking beyond self, thinking about future, involved im community, neg outcome: stagnation
Ericsons final stage of dev 8th:
Egointegrity vs Despair 60 and upward, Egointegrity:reflects on past happily, Despair: regrets.
Ericsons final stage of dev 8th:
Egointegrity vs Despair 60 and upward, Egointegrity:reflects on past happily, Despair: regrets.
Social Learning theories:
watching otheres
Social Learning theories:
watching otheres
Operant Conditioning:
Reinforcement in either a:reward or a punishment
Operant Conditioning:
Reinforcement in either a:reward or a punishment
Longitudal Studies
studies done on a particular type of child over a span of time.
Longitudal Studies
studies done on a particular type of child over a span of time.
Cells have a nucleus made up of
chromosomes
Cells have a nucleus made up of
chromosomes
Chromosomes are made up of
DNA
Chromosomes are made up of
DNA
DNA have short segments called
genes
DNA have short segments called
genes
Genes are made up of
proteins AT CG
Genes are made up of
proteins AT CG
a S.N.P is
a single necleotide plymorphism, an abnormal gens or misplaced gene
a S.N.P is
a single necleotide plymorphism, an abnormal gens or misplaced gene
Down Syndrome
Children born with an xtra chromosome, Trisomy 21: resulting in mental retardation/physical abnormalities
Down Syndrome
Children born with an xtra chromosome, Trisomy 21: resulting in mental retardation/physical abnormalities
Klienfelters syndrom
have and xtra X :ie:XXY: result is tall, with larger breast, underdeveloped testes: low sperm production
Klienfelters syndrom
have and xtra X :ie:XXY: result is tall, with larger breast, underdeveloped testes: low sperm production
Fragile X syndrome
X chromosome is weak, (mostly males)fragile can break off: effects Cognition and planning , judgement, consistancy
Fragile X syndrome
X chromosome is weak, (mostly males)fragile can break off: effects Cognition and planning , judgement, consistancy
Turner syndrome:
Female syndrome: XX becomes XO, resulting inshort starue, webbed neck, possible infertility and Difficulty with math, verbal ability is GOOD, Treatment: hormone therapy in childhood and puberty
Turner syndrome:
Female syndrome: XX becomes XO, resulting inshort starue, webbed neck, possible infertility and Difficulty with math, verbal ability is GOOD, Treatment: hormone therapy in childhood and puberty
XYY syndrome
In males an xtra Y:resulting in taller more aggressive men
XYY syndrome
In males an xtra Y:resulting in taller more aggressive men
Sickle cell anemia
Red blood cells shaped in cresent and cant carry oxygen as quickly, causing anemia and death
Sickle cell anemia
Red blood cells shaped in cresent and cant carry oxygen as quickly, causing anemia and death
Cystic Fibrosis
glandular abnormality, causing extra mucous prodution(excessive)
Cystic Fibrosis
glandular abnormality, causing extra mucous prodution(excessive)
Diabetes
Not producing enough insulin, causing nueropathy
Diabetes
Not producing enough insulin, causing nueropathy
Hemophilia
Blood clotting disorder
Hemophilia
Blood clotting disorder
Huntingtons disease
Cental nervous system deteriorates, and muscles, occurance 35 and older death occurs with in 10-20 yrs after symptoms appear
Huntingtons disease
Cental nervous system deteriorates, and muscles, occurance 35 and older death occurs with in 10-20 yrs after symptoms appear
Spina Bifada
Nueral tube disorder
Spina Bifada
Nueral tube disorder
Tay Saks
Mental/Physical deceleration(build up of Fats(lipids) in the CNA-More likely in JEWS
Tay Saks
Mental/Physical deceleration(build up of Fats(lipids) in the CNA-More likely in JEWS
Mitosis
cells dividing
Mitosis
cells dividing
Meiosis
Gametes
Meiosis
Gametes
Egg(ovum)has how many chromosomes
23
Egg(ovum)has how many chromosomes
23
sperm has how many chromosomes
23 with 46 total in human reproduction half from mom and half from dad
sperm has how many chromosomes
23 with 46 total in human reproduction half from mom and half from dad
germinal period
the period of prenatal dev. that takes place in the 1st two weeks after conception, includes the creation of the zygote, contiued cell division and the attachmet of the zygote to the uterine wall(considered mitosis)
germinal period
the period of prenatal dev. that takes place in the 1st two weeks after conception, includes the creation of the zygote, contiued cell division and the attachmet of the zygote to the uterine wall(considered mitosis)
blastocyst
the inner layer of cells tht develop during the germinal period cells later develop into the embryo.
blastocyst
the inner layer of cells tht develop during the germinal period cells later develop into the embryo.
prenatal gestation
has 3 trimesters
prenatal gestation
has 3 trimesters
1st trimester of pregnancy
1-3 months-germinal period:cell division by mitosis, cels have specialized for different tasks
1st trimester of pregnancy
1-3 months-germinal period:cell division by mitosis, cels have specialized for different tasks
2nd trimester of pregnancy
3-6 months embrionic period: rate of cell defferentation intensifies, and organs appear
2nd trimester of pregnancy
3-6 months embrionic period: rate of cell defferentation intensifies, and organs appear
3rd and final stage of gestation
6-9 months fetal period:
3rd and final stage of gestation
6-9 months fetal period:
Teratogen
any agent that causes a birth defect .
Teratogen
any agent that causes a birth defect .
Low birth weight in preterm infants
less than 5.5 lbs
Low birth weight in preterm infants
less than 5.5 lbs
preterm infant
born 3wks or more before full term
preterm infant
born 3wks or more before full term
apgar scale
scoe of 7 = perfect baby
apgar scale
scoe of 7 = perfect baby
small for date infants
an infant with weghts below normal when the length of pregnany is considered . can be preterm or full term
small for date infants
an infant with weghts below normal when the length of pregnany is considered . can be preterm or full term
Thalidomide
a teratogen use for morning sickness in mothers, causing birth defects,
Thalidomide
a teratogen use for morning sickness in mothers, causing birth defects,
fetal alcohol syndrome
a cluster of abnormalities that apear in the offspring of moms who drink alscohol heavily during pregnancy
fetal alcohol syndrome
a cluster of abnormalities that apear in the offspring of moms who drink alscohol heavily during pregnancy
children born with cocaine addictions
likely to have neurological , medical and cognitive deficitys
children born with cocaine addictions
likely to have neurological , medical and cognitive deficitys
Marijuana effects on offspring
lower intelligence, also predisposal of the teen using at early age
Marijuana effects on offspring
lower intelligence, also predisposal of the teen using at early age
Heroin in offspring
behavioral difficulties and tremors irritablily abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control.
Heroin in offspring
behavioral difficulties and tremors irritablily abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control.
methanphetamine and the offfspring
high infant mortality lbw,and dev andbehavioral problems memory deficits
methanphetamine and the offfspring
high infant mortality lbw,and dev andbehavioral problems memory deficits
nicotine and the offspring
lbw, preterm births and neonatal deaths
nicotine and the offspring
lbw, preterm births and neonatal deaths
alcohol and the offspring
facil deformities and dective limbs, gace hear, impainred math ability and multiple reagions of the brain, Us surgeon recommends no alcohol consumtion during pregnancy is safe.
alcohol and the offspring
facil deformities and dective limbs, gace hear, impainred math ability and multiple reagions of the brain, Us surgeon recommends no alcohol consumtion during pregnancy is safe.
caffeine and pregnancy
women who consumed 2oo or more milligrams of caffeine a day increase risk of miscarriage and to do so sparingly
caffeine and pregnancy
women who consumed 2oo or more milligrams of caffeine a day increase risk of miscarriage and to do so sparingly
Amniocentisis
extraction of ambiotic fluid for testing chromosomal abnormalities
Amniocentisis
extraction of ambiotic fluid for testing chromosomal abnormalities
Sonogram
ultrasound to view physicality of unborn infants(created by sound waves)
Sonogram
ultrasound to view physicality of unborn infants(created by sound waves)
MRI
finer picture of magnetic resolution
MRI
finer picture of magnetic resolution
All infants are born(sight)
near sighted- and prefer patterns and human faces over color
All infants are born(sight)
near sighted- and prefer patterns and human faces over color
Infant relexes
Rooting(infant turns head when cheek is stroked),Sucking, Moro(neonatal startle to response infant throw arms back and head. the rapidly closes its limbs to body.
Infant relexes
Rooting(infant turns head when cheek is stroked),Sucking, Moro(neonatal startle to response infant throw arms back and head. the rapidly closes its limbs to body.
New borns are born with all 5 senses
hear, feel, taste, sight
New borns are born with all 5 senses
hear, feel, taste, sight
infants prefer
sweeter taste as opposed to salt or ect...
infants prefer
sweeter taste as opposed to salt or ect...
hearing takes place
prenately
hearing takes place
prenately
Cephalocaudal
sequence of devekopment in which earlies growth starts at the head and extends downward
Cephalocaudal
sequence of devekopment in which earlies growth starts at the head and extends downward
proximodistal
growth starting at the center and moving outwrd to limbs
proximodistal
growth starting at the center and moving outwrd to limbs
Phomeme
the shortest arbitrary unit of sound in a language that can be recognized as being distinct from other sounds in the language
Phomeme
the shortest arbitrary unit of sound in a language that can be recognized as being distinct from other sounds in the language
morphme
Smallest meaningful unit of a language; used to form words(minimal unit of meaning, and cant be broken into parts)
morphme
Smallest meaningful unit of a language; used to form words(minimal unit of meaning, and cant be broken into parts)
Syntax
the system that involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
Syntax
the system that involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
babbling begins at age
6 months at 5 months infants understand first word, 2-4 months cooing begings
babbling begins at age
6 months at 5 months infants understand first word, 2-4 months cooing begings
Temperment is attributed to
Nature(inborn)
Temperment is attributed to
Nature(inborn)
Easychild
generally happy easy to please and laughs and rountines easily
Easychild
generally happy easy to please and laughs and rountines easily
Difficult child
A child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and a tendency to react negatively and intensely.
Difficult child
A child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and a tendency to react negatively and intensely.
Slow-to-warmup child
a child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity; mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative mood, and slow adjustment to new experiences.
Slow-to-warmup child
a child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity; mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative mood, and slow adjustment to new experiences.
attatchment
close emotional bond between infant and caregiver, not taught, same in all cultures
attatchment
close emotional bond between infant and caregiver, not taught, same in all cultures
social referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
social referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
Reflexive smile
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep.
Reflexive smile
A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep.
Social Smile
a smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth or around 2 months
Social Smile
a smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth or around 2 months