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anything that takes up space and has mass that comes i 4 phases

3 on Solid

definate shape, definate volume, lowest energy

3 on liquid

no defniate shape, definate volume, mid-level energy

3 on gas

no definate shape, no definate volume, high energy

4 phase of matter is plasma 4 points

1-most common phase in the universe but not common on earth, 2-extreamly high energy, 3-very colorfull, 4-found in stars, lightning, hottest part of a flame, TV's, norther lights

chemical reaction

process by which substances interact to form a new substance

reactants say 2

substances you start with, or what reacts with each other

products say 2

substances that are created or what is produced


gives off energy from H to low, fire/explosion/heat, products have less energy than reactants (candle)


takes in evergy, gets colder, producst have more energy than reactants, "instant ice packs"

physical property

any property that can be tested without changing the chemical makes up like, color, shape, texture, melting/boiling point, mass

Chemical propertys

property that can only be tested by changeing the chemical makeup, involves energy, like rust, or fire

a chemical change can only happen

by edothermics, or endothermics

how can you tell a chemical reaction occured

if the products are diff. from the reactants

is there is no change

it is not a reactions

ice melting

is not a chemical change, it is physical

observation to indicate a chemical change

bubbles, color, soil forming in solution, change in temp, light

phisical and chameical propertys can be used to

separate mixtures

only chemical propertys are used to

seperate compounds

3 things matter can be classified as

element, compound, or mixture


substances of the same atom


substances of entierly the same molicule, water


elements and compounds next to each other

elements ratios

there are 90 natural elements on eather, more in the univers, and 40 on earth are in elements form


two or more atoms bonded togeather

example of molecules

water, ammonia, glass, methane, limestone

oxigen that we breath

we breath into 02 not just oxigen, but two bonded togeather

diatomic and 7 examples

when two atoms form togeather the 7 examples are: nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine

allotropes and example

one of the different molecular forms of an element. oxygen has two allotropes, O2 (oxygen) that we breath and O3 (ozone) which are 3 oxygens which make up the ozone layer

allotropes of carbon

graphite, diamond, soot


compounds and elements mixed togeather but not bonded

hetero mixture

chucky, like orange juice, granit, salad dressing


even throughout, milk, saltwater


really well mixed homogen solution

1) Atom in Greek

Means unable to be cut

2) Separating elements/atoms

They cannot be separated through chemical/physical means, only a nueclear reaction

3) Law of the conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes forms

4) Where does the energy come from in exothermic reactions

The bonds or energy holding the reactants together, the new substances needs less energy to hold the bond so energy in released into the environment (heat, gas, ect)

5) How do endothermic reactions work with energy

More energy in needed to hold the new bond together, so energy is aborbed from the environment, making it feel colder, b/c the heat or energy is put in bonds which leaves the cold

6) What changes require energy

Physical and chemical

7) No matter what form of matter it is the atoms are

Always constantly moving

8) Heat energy

Is the rate at which the atoms/molecules move, the faster they move the warmer it is

9) Physical changes

Going from a solid to liquid and a liquid to a gas you have to add energy, going in the opposite you have to take away energy, since there is no cold energy

10) Absolute zero

Is when all motion in a solid stops, and the atoms are not moving which happens at -273'C

11) Temperature is a measure of

intensity of heat energy in an object

12) Temperature is an average of how

Fast the particles are moving in an object

13) Kelvin scale

Is Celsius + 273

14) Matter can be converted into


15) What the equation from matter to energy

E = mc2

16) Energy equation

E = mass x Speed if light

17) What's the speed of light

3.0 x108 m/s

18) This is Einstein's

theory of special relativity

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