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52 terms

chemistry chapter 3/4.1

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matter
anything that takes up space and has mass that comes i 4 phases
3 on Solid
definate shape, definate volume, lowest energy
3 on liquid
no defniate shape, definate volume, mid-level energy
3 on gas
no definate shape, no definate volume, high energy
4 phase of matter is plasma 4 points
1-most common phase in the universe but not common on earth, 2-extreamly high energy, 3-very colorfull, 4-found in stars, lightning, hottest part of a flame, TV's, norther lights
chemical reaction
process by which substances interact to form a new substance
reactants say 2
substances you start with, or what reacts with each other
products say 2
substances that are created or what is produced
extothermic
gives off energy from H to low, fire/explosion/heat, products have less energy than reactants (candle)
endothermic
takes in evergy, gets colder, producst have more energy than reactants, "instant ice packs"
physical property
any property that can be tested without changing the chemical makes up like, color, shape, texture, melting/boiling point, mass
Chemical propertys
property that can only be tested by changeing the chemical makeup, involves energy, like rust, or fire
a chemical change can only happen
by edothermics, or endothermics
how can you tell a chemical reaction occured
if the products are diff. from the reactants
is there is no change
it is not a reactions
ice melting
is not a chemical change, it is physical
observation to indicate a chemical change
bubbles, color, soil forming in solution, change in temp, light
phisical and chameical propertys can be used to
separate mixtures
only chemical propertys are used to
seperate compounds
3 things matter can be classified as
element, compound, or mixture
elements
substances of the same atom
coumponds
substances of entierly the same molicule, water
mixtures
elements and compounds next to each other
elements ratios
there are 90 natural elements on eather, more in the univers, and 40 on earth are in elements form
molecule
two or more atoms bonded togeather
example of molecules
water, ammonia, glass, methane, limestone
oxigen that we breath
we breath into 02 not just oxigen, but two bonded togeather
diatomic and 7 examples
when two atoms form togeather the 7 examples are: nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
allotropes and example
one of the different molecular forms of an element. oxygen has two allotropes, O2 (oxygen) that we breath and O3 (ozone) which are 3 oxygens which make up the ozone layer
allotropes of carbon
graphite, diamond, soot
mixtures
compounds and elements mixed togeather but not bonded
hetero mixture
chucky, like orange juice, granit, salad dressing
homogen
even throughout, milk, saltwater
solution
really well mixed homogen solution
1) Atom in Greek
Means unable to be cut
2) Separating elements/atoms
They cannot be separated through chemical/physical means, only a nueclear reaction
3) Law of the conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes forms
4) Where does the energy come from in exothermic reactions
The bonds or energy holding the reactants together, the new substances needs less energy to hold the bond so energy in released into the environment (heat, gas, ect)
5) How do endothermic reactions work with energy
More energy in needed to hold the new bond together, so energy is aborbed from the environment, making it feel colder, b/c the heat or energy is put in bonds which leaves the cold
6) What changes require energy
Physical and chemical
7) No matter what form of matter it is the atoms are
Always constantly moving
8) Heat energy
Is the rate at which the atoms/molecules move, the faster they move the warmer it is
9) Physical changes
Going from a solid to liquid and a liquid to a gas you have to add energy, going in the opposite you have to take away energy, since there is no cold energy
10) Absolute zero
Is when all motion in a solid stops, and the atoms are not moving which happens at -273'C
11) Temperature is a measure of
intensity of heat energy in an object
12) Temperature is an average of how
Fast the particles are moving in an object
13) Kelvin scale
Is Celsius + 273
14) Matter can be converted into
Energy
15) What the equation from matter to energy
E = mc2
16) Energy equation
E = mass x Speed if light
17) What's the speed of light
3.0 x108 m/s
18) This is Einstein's
theory of special relativity