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NUR 356 Mod 1 Chapter 2 Mental Health and Mental Illness: Historical and Theoretical Concepts
Terms in this set (30)
Explain the concepts of incomprehensibility and cultural relativity.
Incomprehensibility relates to the inability of the general population to understand the motivation behind the behavior. When observers are unable to find meaning or comprehensibility in behavior, they are likely to label that behavior as mental illness-Cultural relativity: considers that the rules, conventions, and understandings about behavior are conceived within an individual's own particular culture. Behavior is considered normal or abnormal according to one's cultural or societal norms. Therefore, a behavior that is recognized as evidence of mental illness in one society may be viewed as normal in another society and vice versa
Describe some symptoms of panic anxiety.
At this extreme level of anxiety, an individual is not capable of processing what is happening in the environment and may lose contact with reality. Psychosis is defined as a significant thought disturbance in which reality testing is impaired, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or catatonic behaviorCommon characteristics of someone with psychoses:-they exhibit minimal distress (emotional tone is flat, bland or inappropriate)-they are unaware that their behavior is maladaptive-they are unaware of any psychological problems (anosognosia)-they are exhibiting a flight from reality into a less stressful world or into one in which they are attempting to adapt.
Jane was involved in an automobile accident in which both her parents were killed. When you ask her about it, she says she has no memory of the accident. What ego defense mechanism is she using?
In what stage of the grieving process is the individual with delayed or inhibited grief fixed?
A symptom of some mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, in which the individual is manifesting overt symptoms of illness but it unaware of the presence of symptoms/unaware that there is anything wrong
A subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to an anticipated loss of a valued entity.
A diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness-
Anxiety becomes problematic when the individual is unable to prevent the anxiety from escalating to a level that interferes with the ability to meet basic needs
An accumulation of grief that occurs when an individual experiences many losses over a short period of time and is unable to resolve one before another is experienced. This phenomenon is common among the elderly.
ego defense mechanisms
Strategies employed by the ego for protection in the face of threat to biological or psychological integrity-Include: Compensation, denial, displacement, identification, intellectualization, introjection, isolation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, sublimation, suppression, undoing
A syndrome of physical symptoms that results from an individual's real or perceived notion that harm or danger is imminent
Selye's description of fight-or-flight in 3 stages:*
1. Alarm reaction stage: during this stage, the responses of the fight-or-flight syndrome are initiated
2. Stage of resistance: the individual uses the physiological responses of the first stage as a defense in an attempt to adapt to the stressor. Id adaptation occurs, the third stage is prevented or delayed. Physiological symptoms may disappear
3. Stage of exhaustion: This stage occurs when there is prolonged exposure to the stressor to which the body has become adjusted. The adaptive energy is depleted, and the individual can no longer draw from the
A subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to the real or perceived loss of a valued entity. Change and failure can also be perceived as losses. The grief response consists of a set of relatively predictable behaviors that describe the subjective state that accompanies mourning:-Stage 1: denial-Stage 2: Anger-Stage 3: Bargaining-Stage 4: Depression-Stage 5: Acceptance
An unconscious conflict that produces anxiety and other symptoms and leads to maladaptive use of defense mechanisms. (Neuroses are psychiatric disturbances characterized by excessive anxiety that is expressed directly or altered through defense mechanisms)
A mental state in which there is a severe loss of contact with reality. Symptoms may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech patterns, and bizarre or catatonic behaviors
Define mental health & mental illness
Definition of mental health in textbook (Townsend) is the successful adaptation to stressors from the internal or external environment, evidenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are age appropriate and congruent with local and cultural norms-
Definition of mental illness in textbook (Townsend) is mal-adaptive responses to stressors from the internal or external environment, evidenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are incongruent with the local and cultural norms, and interfere with the individual's social, occupational, and/or physical functioning
Discuss cultural elements that influence attitudes toward mental health and mental illness
Behavior is thought of as normal or abnormal according to one's cultural or societal norms. So a behavior that is recognized as evidence of mental illness in one society may be viewed as normal in another society and vice versa.-It is usually members of the lay community rather than a psychiatric prof who initially recognize than an individual's behavior deviates from the social norms-People who are related to an individual or who are of the same cultural or social group are less likely than someone who is relationally or culturally distant to label that individual's behavior as mental illness-Psychiatrists see a person with mental illness most often when the family members can no longer deny the illness-Individuals in the lowest socioeconomic class usually display the highest amount of mental illness symptoms-The higher the social class, the greater the recognition of mental illness behaviors (as defined by societal norms)-The more highly educated the person, the greater the recognition of mental illness behaviors -In terms of religion, Jewish people are more likely than people who are catholic or protestant to seek psychiatric assistance -Women are more likely than men to recognize the symptoms of mental illness and seek assistance -The greater the cultural distance from the mainstream of society (i.e. the fewer the ties with conventional society), the greater the likelihood of a negative response by society to mental illnes
Identify physiological responses to stress
-Fight or flight syndrome-Selye called this general reaction of the body to stress the general adaptation syndrome:1. Alarm reaction stage: the responses of the fight or flight syndrome are initiated2. Stage of resistance: the individual uses the physiological responses of the first stage as a defense in an attempt to adapt to the stressor. If adaptation occurs, the third stage is prevented or delayed. Physiological symptoms may dissapear3. Stage of exhaustion: this stage occurs when there is a prolonged exposure to the stressor to which the body has become adjusted. The adaptive energy is depleted, and the individual can no longer draw from the resources for adaptation described in the first two stages. Diseases of adaptation (e.g. headaches, mental disorders, coronary artery disease, ullcers, colitis) may occur. Without intervention for reversal, exhaustion and even death ensues-ANXIETY & GRIEF
Compensation (ego defense mechanism)
Covering up a real or perceived weakness by emphasizing a trait one considers more desirable-Ex. a physically handicapped boy is unable to participate in football, so he compensates by becoming a great scholar
Denial (ego defense mechanism)
Refusing to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or the feelings associated with it -Ex. a woman who drinks alcohol every day and cannot stop, failing to acknowledge that she has a problem
Displacement (ego defense mechanism)
The transfer of feelings from one target to another that is considered less threatening or that is neutral -Ex. A client is angry at his doctor, does not express it, but becomes verbally abusive with the nurse
Rationalization (ego defense mechanism)
Attempting to make excuses or formulate logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors-Ex. John tells the rehab nurse, "I drink because it's the only way I can deal with my bad marriage and my worse job"
hree years ago, Anna's dog, Lucky, her pet for 16 years, was killed by a car. Since that time, Anna has lost weight, rarely leaves her home, and talks excessively about Lucky. Anna's behavior would be considered maladaptive for which of the following reasons?
a. It has been more than 3 years since Lucky died.
b. Her grief is too intense over the loss of a dog.
c. Her grief is interfering with her functioning.
d. Cultural norms typically do not comprehend grief over the loss of a pet.
Her grief is interfering with her functioning.
Anna states that Lucky was her closest friend, and since his death, no one can ever replace the relationship they had. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which level of need is not being met?
a. Physiological needs
b. Self-esteem needs
c. Safety and security needs
d. Love and belonging needs
Love and belonging needs
Anna's daughter notices that Anna appears to be listening to another voice when just the two of them are in a room together. When questioned, Anna admits that she hears someone telling her that she was a horrible caretaker for Lucky and did not deserve to ever have a pet. Which of the following best describes what Anna is experiencing?
Anna, who is 72 years old, is of the age when she may have experienced several losses in a short time. What is this called?
A. Bereavement overload
B. Normal mourning
D. Cultural relativity
Anna has been grieving the death of Lucky for 3 years. She is unable to take care of her normal activities because she insists on visiting Lucky's grave daily. What is the most likely reason that Anna's daughter has put off seeking help for Anna?A. Women are less likely than men to seek help for emotional problems.
B. Relatives often try to normalize behavior rather than label it mental illness.
C. She knows that all older people are expected to be a little depressed.
D. She is afraid that the neighbors will think her mother is "crazy."
Relatives often try to normalize behavior rather than label it mental illness.
Lucky's accident occurred when he got away from Anna while they were taking a walk. He ran into the street and was hit by a car. Anna cannot remember the circumstances of his death. This is an example of what defense mechanism?
Lucky sometimes refused to obey Anna's commands to come back to her, including when he ran into the street on the day of the accident. But Anna continues to insist, "He was the very best dog. He always minded me. He always did everything I told him to do." Which defense mechanism is Anna exhibiting?
C. Reaction formation
Anna has been a widow for 20 years. Her maladaptive grief response to the loss of her dog may be attributed to which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A. Unresolved grief over loss of her husband
B. Loss of several relatives and friends over the last few years
C. Repressed feelings of guilt over the way Lucky died
D. Inability to prepare in advance for the loss
For what reason would Anna's illness be considered a neurosis rather than a psychosis?
A. She is unaware that her behavior is maladaptive.
B. She exhibits inappropriate affect (emotional tone).
C. She experiences no loss of contact with reality.
D. She tells the nurse, "There is nothing wrong with me!"
She experiences no loss of contact with reality.
Which of the following statements by Anna might suggest that she is achieving resolution of her grief over Lucky's death?
A. "I don't cry anymore when I think about Lucky."
B. "It's true. Lucky didn't always mind me. Sometimes he ignored my commands."
C. "I remember how it happened now. I should have held tighter to his leash!"
D. "I won't ever have another dog. It's just too painful to lose them."
"It's true. Lucky didn't always mind me. Sometimes he ignored my commands."
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