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How do you determine the total power of magnification of a microscope?
you multiply it by 10
All living organisms must maintain stable internal conditions. What is this called and how does an organism maintain these internal conditions?
Homeostasis. Temperature, water content and nutrition intake.
What are the characteristics of life?
-cells -organization -homeostasis -energy use
what is an example of qualitative data?
the texture of a table
what is an example of quantitative data?
the length of the table
-anything that occupies space or matter
-quantity of matter a space has
-the pull of gravity on an object
what is an independent variable?
-the variable that is manipulated
what is an ionic bond?
a bond formed by electrical attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions
is oxygen stable of unstable?
not stable. it does not fill the limit of the circles
what are the states of matter?
what is an endergonic reaction?
reactions that involve a new absorption of free energy
give a solution of saltwater, what is the solute and what is the solvent in the solution?
aspirin is acidic. why was buffered aspirin invented?
because aspirin without the buffered outside is acidic, and that bothered people's esophagus.
what is a polar molecule?
-a molecule with 1 side having a negative charge and the other side with a positive charge.
what is an element?
pure substances that can not be broken down
what is a hypothesis?
if, then statement.
what is a control group?
what you control in an experiment
what is changed
what is a dependent variable?
the response that is measured
what is an example of quantitative data?
the length of the table
what is a covalent bond?
forms when an atom share 1 or more pairs of electrons
what is the structure of an atom?
so small, their true structure can't be determined
what is an ion?
an atom/composed with a net electrical charge
what is an exergonic reaction?
chemical reactions that involve a net release of free energy
what is adhesion?
the attractive force between unlike substances
what is cohesion?
the attraction of like molecules to each other
what are the 4 classes of organic compounds necessary for organisms?
-carbohydrates -lipids -proteins -nucleic acids
what is so important about oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen?
more than 90% of the mass of objects are made up of this.
what are the 2 ends of lipids called?
-polar heads -non-polar tails
What are the values found in the pH scale?
-acidic -neutral -alkaline
what is a catalyst?
reduced amount of activation energy needed for a reaction
what is an enzyme?
important class of catalysts in living things
what is the function of carbohydrates?
Store energy, part of the cell membrane
what is the function of lipids?
what is the function of proteins?
what is the function for nucleic acid?
store genetic information
Why is shape so important in enzyme and in a substrate?
Because each enzyme and substrate have different sizes for their different chemical reactions.
what is a substrate?
the reactant that is being catalyzed
what is the cell theory?
-all living things are composed of 1 or more cells
-cells are the basic units of structure & function in an organism
-cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
-contains the majority of genetic information and directs most of the activity of a cell
-it is the large organelle near the center of the cell
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae)
(in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
define the golgi apparatus
a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells
define the lysosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
define the endoplasmic reticulum
a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis
how are plant cells different from animal cells?
plant cells have: chloroplasts, plastids, cell wall & vacuoles
animal cells: don't have these^
without it, the cell wouldn't be able to synthesize ribosomes & assemble them before they passed through the nuclear pores to the cytosol
what is a colonial organism?
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a closely connected group
what is the sodium potassium pump, what does it do and, what is it made of?
-it is a carrier protein that actively transports k+ ions into and Na+ ions out of the cell wall
-it works to maintain the concentration differences
-cell membrane -carrier proteins -ions
the process in which molecules move from an area of lower concentration
what is a hypertonic solution?
cell grows smaller. <-O->
what is a hypotonic solution?
cell grows bigger. (hypo) ->O<-
what is an isotonic solution?
cell's size stays the same. <-O<-
what is active transport?
-the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient-> requires cell to expand
*use of energy
-the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy
*high to low
*no use of energy
conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A (in/out chart)
pyruvic acid |Acetyl COA
glycolysis (in/out chart)
glucose |2 pyruvic acid (3C)
2 ATP |4 ATP
2 NAD+|2 NADH
krebs cycle (in/out chart)
Acetyl COA|2 CO2
3 NAD+ |3 NADH
C6 H12 O6+6O2-->6O2+6H2O+energy
6C2+6H2O+light energy-->C6 H12 O6+CO2
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Discuss the following problem. Two adjacent cells in the nematode worm normally differentiate into an anchor cell (AC) and a ventral uterine precursor (VU) cell, but which of the two becomes the AC and which becomes the VU cell is completely random: the cells have an equal chance of adopting either fate, but they always adopt different fates. Mutations of Lin12 alter these fates. In hyperactive Lin12 mutants, both cells become VU cells, while in inactive Lin12 mutants, both cells become ACs. Thus, Lin12 is central to the decision- making process. In genetic mosaics in which one precursor cell has the hyperactive Lin12 and the other precursor has the inactive Lin12, the cell with the hyperactive Lin12 always becomes the VU cell and the cell with inactive Lin12 always becomes the AC. Assuming that one cell sends a signal and the other cell receives it, explain how these results suggest that Lin12 encodes a protein required to receive the signal. Offer a suggestion for how the fates of these two precursor cells are normally decided in wild-type worms.
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