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Research and Program Evaluation
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Terms in this set (48)
The most valuable type of research is
a. always conducted using a factor analysis
b. conducted using the chi-square
c. the experiment, used to discover cause-and-effect relationships
d. the quasi-experiment
C
Experiments emphasize parsimony, which means
a. interpreting the results in the simplest way
b. interpreting the results in the most complex manner
c. interpreting the results using a correlation coefficient
d. interpreting the results using a clinical interview
A
A counselor educator is running an experiment to test a new form of counseling. Unbeknownst to the experimenter one of the clients in the study is secretly seeing a gestalt therapist. This experiment
a. is parsimonious
b. is an example of Occam's Razor
c. is confounded/flawed
d. is valid and will most likely help the field of counseling
C
Nondirective is to person centered as
a. psychological testing is to counseling
b. confounding is to experimenting
c. appraisal is to research
d. parsimony is to Occam's Razor
D
Hypothesis testing is most closely related to the work of
a. Robert Hoppock
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Lloyd Morgan
d. R. A. Fisher
D
From a purely statistics standpoint, in order to compare a control group to the experimental group, the researcher will need _______
a. a correlation coefficient
b. only descriptive statistics
c. percentile rank
d. a test of significance
D
When you see the letter P in relation to a test of significance it means
a. portion
b. population parameter
c. probability
d. the researcher is using an ethnographic qualitative approach
C
In the social sciences the accepted probability level is usually
a. .05 or less
b. 1.0 or higher
c. .0001 or less
d. .05 or higher
A
P=.05 really means that
a. five subjects were not included in the study
b. there is only a 5% chance that the difference between the control group and the experimental groups is due to chance factors
c. the level of significance is .01
d. no level of significance has been set
B
P=.05 really means that
a. differences truly exist; the experimenter will obtain the same results 95 times out of 100
b. differences truly exist; the experimenter will obtain the same results 99 times out of 100
c. there is a 95% error factor
d. there is a 10% error factor
A
A study that would best rule out chance factors would have a significance level of P=___.
a. .05
b. .01
c. .001
d. .08
C
Type I and Type II errors are called ___________ and ___________
a. beta; alpha
b. .01; .05
c. a and b
d. alpha; beta
D
A Type I error occurs when
a. you have a beta error
b. you accept null when it is false
c. you reject null when it is true
d. you fail to use a test of significance
C
A Typy II error
a. is also called a beta error
b. means you reject null when it is applicable
c. means you accept null when it is false
d. a and c
D
A counselor educator decides to increase the sample size in her experiment. This will
a. confound the experiment in nearly every case
b. raise the probability of Type I and Type II errors
c. have virtually no impact on Type I and Type II errors
d. reduce Type I and Type II errors
D
If a researcher changes the significance level from .05 to .01
a. alpha and beta errors will increase
b. alpha errors increase but beta errors decrease
c. alpha errors decrease; however beta errors increase
d. this will have no impact on Type I and Type II errors
C
A counselor believes that clients who receive assertiveness training will ask more questions in counseling classes. An experimental group receives assertiveness training while a control group does not. In order to test for significant differences between the groups the counselor should utilize
a. the student's t test
b. a correlation coefficient
c. a survey
d. an analysis of variance (ANOVA)
A
The researcher now attempts a more complex experiment. One group receives no assertiveness training, a second group receives four assertiveness training sessions, and a third receives 6 assertiveness training sessions. The statistic of choice would be the
a. mean
b. t test
c. two way anova
d. anova
D
If the researcher used two IVs then the statistic of choice would be the
a. median
b. t test
c. two way anova or manova
d. anova
C
To complete a t test you would consult a tabled value of t. In order to see if significant differences exist in an ANOVA you would
a. the mode
b. a table for t values
c. a table for F values
d. the chi-square
C
When a researcher uses a correlation, then there is no direct manipulation of the IV. A researcher might ask, for example, how IQ correlates with the incidence of panic disorder. Again, nothing is manipulated; just measured. In cases such as this a correlation coefficient will reveal
a. the relationship between IQ and panic disorder
b. the probability that a significant difference exists
c. an F test
d. percentile rank
A
Behaviorists often utilize N=1, which is called intensive experimental design. The first step in this approach would be to
a. consult a random number table
b. decide on a nonparametric statistical test
c. take a baseline measure
d. compute the range
C
In a new experiment, a counselor educator wants to ferret out the effects of more than one IV. She will use a _______ design.
a. Pearson Product-Moment r
b. Spearman rank order rho
c. factorial
d. Solomon four group
C
When a horizontal line is drawn under a frequency distribution it is known as
a. mesokurtic
b. the y axis
c. the ordinate
d. the x axis
D
The x axis is used to plot the IV scores. The x axis could also be called the ________ on your exam
a. y axis
b. abscissa
c. DV
d. vertical axis
B
The Y axis is used to plot the frequency of the DVs. The y axis could also be called the _________ on your exam
a. ordinate
b. abscissa
c. IV
d. horizontal axis
A
If a distribution is bimodal, there is a good chance that
a. the curve will be normal
b. the curve will be shaped like a symmetrical bell
c. the researcher is working with two distinct populations
d. the research is useless in the field of counseling
C
IF an experiment can be replicated by others with almost identical findings, then the experiment is
a. impacted by the observer effect
b. said to be a naturalistic observation
c. the result of ethological observation
d. said to be reliable
D
A sociogram is to a counseling group as a scattergram is to
a. the normal curve
b. the range
c. a correlation coefficient
d. the John Henry effect
C
The variance is a measure of dispersion of scores around some measure of central tendency. The variance is the standard deviation squared. A popular IQ test has a standard deviation of 15. A counselor would expect that if the mean IQ score is 100 then
a. the average score on the test would be 122
b. 95% of the poeple who take the test will score between 85 and 115
c. 99% of the people who take the test will score between 85 and 115
d. 68% of the people who take the test will score between 85 and 115
D
One could say that a person with an IQ score of 122 would fall within
a. + or -1 SD of the mean
b. the average IQ range
c. an IQ score which is more than 2 SD above the mean
d. +2 or -2 Sd of the mean
D
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. A z-score of +1 would be the same as
a. 1 SD above the mean
b. 1 SD below the mean
c. the same as a so-called t-score
d. the median score if the population is normal
A
A platykurtic distribution would look approximately like
a. the upper half of a bowling ball
b. the normal distribution
c. the upper half of a hot dog, lying on its side over the abscissa
d. a camel's back
C
Which of the following illustrates the function of a nominal scale?
a. a horse categorized as a 2nd place winner in a show
b. a DSM or ICD diagnostic category
c. an IQ score of 111
d. the weight of an olympic barbell set
B
An example of an ordinal scale would be
a. a horse categorized as a 2nd place winner in a show
b. an IQ score of 111
c. the weight of an olympic barbell set
d. the temperature of 78 degrees farenheight
A
An example of an interval scale
a. an IQ of 70 is 70 points below an IQ of 140, yet a counselor could not assert that a client with an IQ of 140 is twice as intelligent as a client with an IQ of 70
b. a 20lb weight is half as heavy as a 40 lb weight
c. a first-place runner is three times as fast as the third place runner
d. a baseball player with number 9 on his uniform can get 9 times more hits than number 1
A
In terms of counseling research
a. the ratio scale is the most practical
b. all true studies utilize the ration scale
c. a and b
d. most psychological attributes cannot be measure on a ratio scale
D
The simplest form of descriptive research is the __________ which requires a questionnaire return or completion rate of ____________ to be accurate
a. survey; 5%
b. survey; 10-25%
c. survey; 50-75%
d. survey; 95%
C
A researcher notes that a group of clients who are not receiving counseling, but are observed in a research study, are improving. Her hypothesis is that the attention she has given them has been curative. The best explanation of their improvement would be
a. the Hawthorne effect
b. the Halo effect
c. the Rosenthal effect
d. type II error in the research
A
An elementary school counselor tells the third grade teacher that a test revealed that certain children will excel during the school year. In reality, no such test was administered. Moreover, the children were unaware of the experiment. By the end of the year, all of the children who were supposed to excel did excel. This would be best explained by that
a. Hawthorne effect
b. Halo effect
c. Rosenthal effect
d. observer bias
C
A panel of investigators discovered that a researcher who completed a major study had unconsciously rated attractive females as better counselors. This is an example of
a. Hawthorne effect
b. Halo effect
c. Rosenthal effect
d. trend analysis
B
All of the following describe the analysis of covariance technique except
a. it is a correlational coefficient
b. it controls for sample differences which exist
c. it helps remove confounding and extraneous variables
d. it statistically eliminates differences in average values influenced by covariates
A
If an ANOVA yields a significant F value, you could rely on _______ to test significant differences between group means.
a. one and two tailed t tests
b. percentile mark
c. Duncan's multiple range, Tukey's, or Scheffe's test
d. summative or formative evaluation
C
Switching the order in which stimuli are presented to a subject in a study is known as
a. the Pygmalion effect
b. counterbalancing
c. ahistoric therapy
d. multiple treatment interface
B
A doctoral student who begins working on his bibliography for his thesis would most likely utilize
a. SPSS
b. ERIC for primary and secondary resources
c. ONET
d. a random number table or random number generation computer program
B
An operational definition
a. outlines a procedure
b. is theoretical
c. outlines a construct
d. is synonymous with the work axiom
A
In a parametric test the assumption is that the scores are normally distributed. In nonparametric testing the curve is not a normal distribution. Which of these tests are nonparametric statistical measures?
a. Mann-Whitney U test, often just called the U test
b. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs
c. Soloman and the Kruskal-Wallis H test
d. all of the above are nonparametric measures
D
A researcher performs a study that has excellent external or so called population validity, meaning that the results have generalizability. To collect his data the researcher gave clients a rating scale in which they were to respond with strongly agree, somewhat agree, neutral, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree. This is
a. a projective measure
b. unacceptable for use in standardized testing
c. a speed test
d. a Likert scale
D
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