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The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis
Terms in this set (62)
-all cells go through during life
-process in which one cell, called the parent cell, divides to form two new cells
what are the newly produced cells called?
which is more simpler: prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
describe the characteristics of a prokaryotic cell.
-single circular chromosome
-few other organelles
describe a eukaryotic cell.
-multiple chromosomes contained with a nucleus
-many other organelles
what must happen when a cell divides?
all of the cell parts must be duplicated and then separated when the cell divides
how most prokaryotic cells divide
what are the three basic steps of binary fission?
1. DNA replication
2. chromosome segregation
describe DNA replication
DNA is copied before the cell divides, which results in two identical chromosomes instead of just one.
describe chromosome segregation
the two chromosomes segregate, or separate, and move to opposite ends (known as poles) of the cell
a new plasma membrane starts growing into the center of the cell, and the cytoplasm splits apart, forming two daughter cells.
what are the two steps of cell division in eukaryotes?
what is mitosis?
a multi-phase process in which the nucleus of the cell divides. during mitosis, the nuclear membrane breaks down and later reforms. the chromosomes are also sorted and separated to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes
repeating series of events that include growth, DNA synthesis, and cell division.
what is the prokaryotic cell cycle?
-the cell grows
what is the eukaryotic cell cycle?
-mitosis, where the nucleus and the cytoplasm divide
what are the different parts of interphase?
1. growth phase 1: during this phase, the cell grows rapidly, which performing routine metabolic processes.
2. synthesis phase: during this phase, the cell's DNA is copied.
3. growth phase 2: the cell makes final preparations to divide.
what is the cell cycle primarily controlled by?
what is cancer?
a disease that occurs when the cell cycle is no longer regulated.
what causes cancer?
a cell's DNA becomes damaged, which can occur due to exposure to hazards such as radiation or toxic chemicals
what do cancerous cells generally do faster than normal cells?
cancer cells form a mass of abnormal cells called what?
the process in which the nucleus divides
what are chromosomes?
coded structures made of DNA and proteins. form of the genetic material of a cell during cell division.
during other phases of the cell cycle, DNA is not coded into chromosomes, but exists as this grainy material.
two identical copies that chromosomes consist of
region where chromatids are attached
the genetic instructions chromosomes are encoded with for making proteins
a pair of chromosomes
the first and longest phase of mitosis
what happens during prophase?
chromatin condenses into chromosomes, and the nuclear membrane breaks down
what happens to the cells during prophase in an animal?
the centrioles near the nucleus begin to separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, and as they move, a spindle starts to form between them
what are spindles?
something that forms during prophase of mitosis. kinetochores on the spindle attach to the centromeres of sister chromatids
what happens during metaphase?
spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each pair of sister chromatids
what happens during anaphase?
sister chromatids separate and the centromeres divide. the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the shortening of the spindle fibers.
what happens during telophase?
the chromosomes begin to uncoil and form chromatin. this prepares the genetic material for directing the metabolic activities of the new cells.
the final stage of cell division in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes.
what happens during cytokinesis?
the cytoplasm splits in two and the cell divides.
what happens in animal cells during cytokinesis?
in animal cells, the plasma membrane of the parent cell pinches inward along the cell's equator until two daughter cells form.
what happens in plant cells?
a cell plate forms along the equator of the parent cell. then, a new plasma membrane and cell wall form along each side of the cell plate
the process by which organisms give rise to offspring.
involves a single parent. it results in offspring that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent
do prokaryotes and some eukaryotes reproduce this way?
what are the different types of asexual reproduction?
what is binary fission?
occurs when a parent cell splits into two identical daughter cells of the same size.
what is fragmentation?
parent organism breaks into fragments, or pieces, and each fragment develops into a new organism. starfish do this.
what is budding?
parent cell forms a bubble-like bud. the bud stays attached to the parent cell while it grows and develops. when the bud is fully developed, it breaks away from the parent cell and forms a new organism. yeast does this.
involves two parents
what happens during sexual reproduction?
parents produce reproductive cells called gametes that unite to form an offspring
what kind of cells are gametes?
what are haploids?
they contain only half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
how are gametes produced?
a type of a meiosis
the process in which two gametes unite
fertilized cell that fertilization results in
what type of cell is a zygote?
diploid cell, which means that it has twice the number of chromosomes as a gamete
the process that produces haploid gametes, and is a type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
what happens during meiosis?
homologous chromosomes separate and haploid cells form that have only one chromosome from each pair. 2 divisions occur during meiosis, and a total of 4 haploids are produced
what are the 2 cell divisions called?
meiosis 1 and meiosis 2
what begins after DNA replicates during interphase?
the development of haploid cells into gametes
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
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