Animal Physiology Test 1

Searching for food and sleeping are both important tasks that animals need to do. This is an example of a trade off because they cannot be done at the same time. Individual animals must find the correct balance between these important tasks or they will be at a selective disadvantage. T/F
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Terms in this set (79)
This primary tissue type lines cavities or cover organs to create boundaries between functionally different regions of the body or between the body and the external environment.epithelial tissue____________ is a type of cell junction anchors a cell to the basement membrane (extracellular matrix).hemidesmosomePhospholipids are amphipathic. T/FtrueWhich band in the anchor band experiment moved the least?the intact band 3 that was anchoredA(n) ____________ is a group pf cells working together to perform a common task.tissueThis type of organic compound is composed of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.proteinsThis model of membrane organization posits that membrane components (phospholipids and proteins) are not restricted in their movement.fluid mosaicLipid rafts:have more saturated phospholipids than the surrounding membraneWhich of the following cellular junctions allows cytoplasmic flow between the connected cells?gap junction___________ are important because they carry out vital body functions and when combined they form organisms.organ systemsThis form of active transport moves large quantities of molecules across a cell membrane at one time (bulk movement).vesicular transport________ is equal to the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium.partition coefficientThe main mechanism of moving water across a cell membrane is through simple diffusion.falseCell membrane allow some, but not all, molecules to pass through the membrane. This ability is called __________.selective permeabilityThis important membrane pump can use up to two thirds of a cell's energy budget.sodium/ potassium ATPase____________ is an integral membrane protein that actively (using ATP) moves substances across the membrane from low to high concentration.carrier protein and ---The concentration of Na+ increases on the outside of the cell. If Na+ is then allowed to move across that cell's membrane, then how does this increase influence Na+ rate of diffusion?the rate will increaseA red blood dropped into a(n) _________ solution will not swell or shrink in size.isotonic____________ are membrane proteins that change conformation when the charge of the cell membrane is altered. This conformational change then allows specific molecules/ ions to move in or out of the cell down their concentration gradient.voltage-gated channels___________ is a form of cell transport where molecules move directly through the membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.simple diffusion________ is important because this process allows the cell to respond to messages quickly and ensures that a lot of products (e.g. enzymes) are produced.signal amplificationCell signaling is a form of positive feedback and therefore requires a mechanism to turn the process off. Which of the following is not a mechanism for ending cell signaling?activating the second messangerAllozymes can be turned on or off by different regulatory pathways depending on the tissue in which they are found.false__________ is inversely related to an enzyme's affinity for its substrate(s).K(sub M)In the enzyme catalysis process shown in the equation below K1 and k2 are rate constants, where k1 is related to enzyme affinity (how well it binds substrate) and k2 is related to enzyme efficiency (how well the enzyme converts substrates to products).trueMessenger molecules that influence the behavior of cells that produce the messengers are known as __________ messengers.autocrineIn order to respond to a messenger molecule, a target cell must have a __________ for that messenger.receptor____________ are a group of enzymes that transfers a high energy phosphate group to target molecules, which usually activates the targets.kinases___________ is the process of transferring a message received at the cell surface to the interior of the cell. Without this process all signal molecules would need to enter the cell which would require the cell to produce many types of membrane transport proteins.signal transductionThe outside of a typical animal cell:is more positive than the inside of the cell_________ is a state where the net flow of an ion through any open channel is equal to zero and it can be calculated with the Nernst equation.equilibrium potentialAccording to __________, voltage equals the current flow times the resistance to ion flow (V=IR):ohm's lawA __________ is a component of a voltmeter that is usually located in an area of known or stable charge.---This type of patch clamp is used to measure flow through an isolated ion channel when messenger molecules or drugs interact with receptors on the cell surface.---A typical animal cell membrane is ________ when it becomes more negative than it is at rest.hyperpolarizedMembrane potential is the charge difference between inside and the outside of a cell and can be calculated with Goldman Equation.trueIf a cell's permeability to an ion changes, but the relative concentration of that ion on each side of the membrane remain the same, then the equilibrium potential of that ion does not change.true__________ is the time required for the observed delta V to reach 0.63 of the asymptote (max delta V) and its value depends on the membrane's capacitance and resistance.R (sub m)The driving force to move an ion across a cell membrane is greatest when...---Pick the statement that is true of voltage-gated sodium channels:the channel has three conformational changes: (1) from rest to activated, (2) from activated to inactivated, and (3) from inactivated to rest. the transition that happens the slowest of these three in transition 2 aboveWhen an action potential jumps from node to node along a myelinated axon it is called:saltatory conductionThe points on an action potential that represent(s) where permeability to Na+ is much more than it is to K+ is (are)...2 (rising potential)The significance of Alan Hodgkin's cold block experiment with axonal transmission was:that is demonstrated that action potentials could theoretically dissipated before reaching their target if the action potential had tp travel farWhich statement about the length constant is not true?---A hyperpolarizing current applied to neural cell body:would make the cell membrane more negative than it is at restDuring the relative refractory period:another action potential can be fired, but the stimulus must be stronger than when the cell is at resting potential___________ potentials are brief, rapid, large changes in membrane potential with a characteristic pattern and amplitude.actionThe absolute refractory period is indicated by point(s)...2, 3, and 4 (rising and falling)An action potential only flows in one direction down an axon because ions entering the axon only flow in one direction.false____________ is a specialized connection between a neuron and a target cell.a synapseMetabotropic responses:are slower than ionotropic responsesWhich of the following is not a step involved in the release of neurotransmitter at chemical synapse?---____________ is the time interval from the arrival of an AP at presynaptic axon terminus to the response of the postsynaptic cell.synaptic delayThe setup of Otto Loewi's frog heart experiment did not allow electrical currents to pass from the first to the second heart, but did allow a dissolved chemical messenger to pass.trueThe figure below is an example of:temporal summationThis figure shows the setup of Katz's experiment that demonstrated that calcium is required for NT release. Pick the true statement about this experiment below:---Neuron "A" synapses with neuron "B" and "C". Neuron A releases NT "Z" at its synapse with cell B which causes an EPSP in postsynaptic cell B. Which of the following statements is true?the response of cell C depends on the type of receptors it has for Z on its postsynaptic cell surfaceA molecule that can bind to a cell membrane receptor and block the activity of that receptor's ligand is called:an antagonist__________ is important because it provides a surface to move vesicles filled with NT to the axon terminus and to move vesicles filled with recycled or waste NT back to the cell body for precessing---This part of the vertebrate nervous system is often called the second brain because it can function independently, its neurons are organized in microcircuits that contain afferent neurons that respond to local stimuli to integrate information and coordinate motor output, and has its own glial support cells.enteric nervous systemThe glial cell that is responsible for immune defense in the CNS is:a microglial cellAll animals have nervous systems.falseAn ___________ has its dendrites and cell body in the CNS and sends info to effectors in the PNS.efferent neuronThe division of the vertebrate nervous system that is responsible for the detection of sensory stimuli is the:afferent division__________ are important because they allow target cells to respond to the NT acetylcholine and have varying responses (IPSP and EPSP) to binding of ACh.cholinergic receptorsAn important function of astrocytes is ________ which protects neurons from fluctuations in blood chemistry, but can make treating diseases of the CNS more difficult.formation of the blood brain barrier____________ is important because it plays a role executive decision making by acting as quality control, where thoughts and actions get refined or sent back for further processing if incorrect.cerebellumThis division of the nervous system is responsible general housekeeping. It slows heartrate and stimulates activity of the stomach and intestines, and promotes voiding of the bladder.parasympatheticThe glial cell that is responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IS:an ependymal cell