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Terms in this set (36)
first devised a system of personal identification using a series of body measurements, called anthropometry
responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints
devised the first workable procedure for typing dried bloodstains
used the comparison microscope to determine if a particular gun fired a bullet
developed the fundamental principles of document examination
wrote the first treatice describing the application of scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation
under this scientist, the first functional crime labs were formed in Lyons, France
When and where was the first forensic lab in the US?
LA police department in 1923
What are the 4 importantant federal agencies offering forensic services in the US?
1) FBI 2) Drug Enforcement Administration 3)Burea of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, & explosives 4) US postal inpection service
unit that examins bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types
unit that examins blood, hairs, fibers, and botanical materials
unit that examins body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons
Frye vs. US
issue: general acceptance of scientific principles; developed the "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of evidence for lab examination
Daubert vs. Merrell Dow Ph.
the judicial case that set forth the current guideline for determining the admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal court
T or F? The US supreme court decision in Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael restricted the "gatekeeping" role of a trial judge only to scientific testimony
Copollino vs. State
a florida case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide descretion that the trial judge has in matters of scientific inquiry
one who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade/profession that will help the court determine the truth of the matter at issue
published first treatice on poisons in animals; "father of forensic toxicology"
What is Locard's exchange principle?
a crosstransfer of evidence occurs when a person comes in contact with another person or object
developed first DNA profiling test in 1984
Hwo does the British system of forensic labs differ from those in the US?
they are a part of a national system of labs controlled by the govn't
List the 3 main reasons for the wide variation in total services offered by crime labs in diff. comunities
variations in local laws, diff. functions of the organization of a lab, & budgetary and staffing limitations
utilized microscopy & other analytical methodologies to examine evidence
What are the 4 levels at which crime labs operate in the government?
federal, state, county, municipal
The increasing number of crime labs are partly the result of the following:
1. supreme court decisions in the 60s responsible for police placing greater emphasis on scientifically evaluated evidence 2. drug abuse increase 3. the advent of DNA profiling
Physical Science Unit
unit that combines chemistry, p[hysics, & geology to compare physical evidence
unit that provides the skills needed for handwriting analysis & other questioned document issues
unit that applies specialized techniques for recording & examining physical evidence
Voiceprint Analysis Unit
attemps to tie a recorded voice to a particular suspect
Evidence Collectino Unit
special personnel collect & preserve physical evidence
5 units of Technical Support
Physical Science, Biology, Firearms, Document, Photographic
Optional Services by full service crime labs
toxicology, latent figerprint, polygraph, voiceprint, evidence units
relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings
using teeth to ID victims
failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires or explosions
Forensic Computer Science
examination of digital evidence
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Forensics Chapter 3
Criminalistics Chapter 13: Metals, Paint, and Soil
Chapters 14 + 15
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