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89 terms

kiniseology quiz 2

STUDY
PLAY
epithelial
SKIN
sheet of cells that covers an exposed area or lines an internal cavity
-provide physical protection
-control permeability
-provide sensation
-produce secialized secretions
connective tissues
found throughout body
never exposed to the enviorment outside of body
-bone
-fat
-blood
connective tissue
basic components
-specialized cells
-extracellular protein fibers
-fluid known as ground substance
functions of connective tissue
-structural framework
-transporting fluids
-protection for organs
-support
-energy reserves
defending the body
connective tissue proper
contains ground substance, extracellular fibers
fixed cells
stationary/involved primarily with local maintenance, repair and energy storage
wandering cells
concerned with defense and repair of damaged cells
fibroblasts
"fiber building" most abundant fixed cell, always present, maintenance, and maintain matrix
fixed microphages
"eaters" engulf damaged cells or pathogens that enter the tissue
adipocytes
fat cells, enormous liquid droplet
mesenchymal cells
"stem cells" respond to local injury or infection
melanocytes
"skin celss" store brown pigment, give tissue dark color
free macrophages
"wander" thru connective tissue
mast cell
found near blood cells. secretory granules of histamine and heparin, stimulation of local inflammation
lymphocytes
"help with infection"
microphages
migrate thru connective tissue in small numbers
"mobilize during infection or tissue injury"
collagen fibers
long straight and unbranched
strongest fibers in connective issue proper
wound together like rope
flexible and strong
tendons
consist almost entirely of collagen fibers
connect tissue to bone
ligaments
resemble tendons
connect bone to bone
reticular fibers
thinner than collagen
contain same protien subunites as collagen fiber, interact in different way
tough but flexible, like spiderweb
resist forces in many directions
-spleen
-liver
elastic fibers
contain protien elastic
stretch 150% of resting length
dominated by elastic fibers
relatively rare, interconnect vertabrae
ground substance
fluid in bone
surrounds cellular and fibrous components of connective tissue
like maple syrup
loose connective tissue
"packing material" in body
fill spaces in organs, provide cushion, support epithelia
aeolar tissue
least specialized
contains all cells and fibers in any connective tissue proper
framework allows distortion
ground substance is most volume
elastice fiber makes it resilient
forms layer seperating skin from deeper strucures
adipose tissue
"fat"
provides cushion, padding, insulator to slow heat loss
"white fat"
brown fat in children
reticular tissue
"spider web of fiber"
reticular fiber, marcrophages, and fibroblasts
-stroma of liver
-spleen
-lymph nodes
-bone marrow
dense connective tissue
occuoied by fibers
collagenous because collagen fibers are dominated by fiber type
dense regular
collagen fibers tightly packed and aligned parallel to applied forces
tendons
muscle to bone
aponeuroses
attach superficial muscles to another muscle structure
abs, lumbar region, palmar region
bottom of foot
elastic tissue
stretchy
found in walls of blood vessels
surround respiratory passageways
ligament
bone to bone
dense irregular
"inconsistent"
strength and support to areas subjected to stress in many directions
internal organs and forms sheath around cartliage and bones
dermis
gives skin strength
fluid connective tissue
blood and lymph
watery matrix
-cells
suspended protiens
blood
...
red blood cells
half volume of blood
transport oxygen in blood
white blood cells
immune system, protects the body from infection and disease
platelets
function in clotting response
"scab"
lymph
immune system, respond to signs of injury
cartliage
firm gel contains complex polysaccharides
-chondroitin sulfates, complex with proteins

collagen fibers provide tensile strength
extracellular fibers and ground substance give it flexibility and resillience
chondrocytes
carliage cells, only cells found withon cartliage martix (fluid)
live in lacunae (small chambers)
avascular
cartliage
hyaline
most common type of cartliage
matrix closely packed in collagen fibers
tough, flexible, but weakest
-connections between ribs and sternum
-passageways of repiratory tract
-elbow/knee
elastic cartliage
elastic fibers
resilient and flexible
-external flap of ear
epiglottis, throat
-auditory tube, airway of ear
-small cartilage of larynx(vociebox)
fibro cartilage
little ground substance
dominated by collagen fibers
-densely interwoven
-durable and tough
RESIST COMPRESSION, ABSORB SHOCK, PREVENT DAMAGING BONE-TO-BONE CONTACT
-pads between spinal vertabrae
-pubic bones
bone
osseus tissie
-combination of collagen fibers and calcium salts
consists of SPONGY bone and COMPACT bone
bone/osseous
matrix of bone tissue
-1/3 consists of collagen fibers
-mixture of calcium salts
strong/flexible bones
lacunae
small chambers within the matrix contain the osteocytes
-organized around blood vessels that branch through the bony matrix
diffusion cannot
occur through the calcium salts
osteocytes communicate
with blood vessels through long, slender passages in the matrix called CANALICULI
osteocytes
mature bone cells
maintain and monitor protein and mineral of surrounding matrix (recycling)
-directs release of calcium from bone to blood
-directs deposition of calcium salts in surrounding matrix
-occupy small lacunae between layers of calcified matrix
contain cytoplasmic processes and ground substance
route for diffusion of nutrients and waste products
matrix layers
known as lamellae
osteoblasts
cuboidal shape
inner/outer surfaces of bone
secrete organic components of bone matrix-oseoid
-later becomes mineralized
RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCTION OF NEW BONE
(osteogenesis)
if surrounded by martix, differentiates into osteocyte
osteoprogenitor cells
small square shaped cells differentiate from mesenchymal cells
found in innermost layer of periosteum and endosteum lining marrow cavities
divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
IMPORTANT TO PRODUCE OSTEOBLASTS AFTER BONE IS CRACKED/BROKE
osteoclasts
large multinucleate cells where bone is being removed
secrete acids that dissolve bony matrix and release amino acids and the stored calcium and phosphate ----> osteolysi-increase calcium and phosphate concentration in body fluids
balance between clast/blast
is very important because
-clasts remove calcium salts faster than osteoblasts deposit them->weaker bones
-blast activity predominates -> bones become stronger and more massive
compact bone
dense bone relatively dense and solid
-forms walls
spongy bone
open network of struts and plates
-internal layer of spongy bone surrounds medullary cavity
medullary cavity contains bone marrow
loose connective tissue that may be yellow marrow(dominated by adipocytes) or red marrow (mixture of mature/immature red and white blood cells and the stem cells that produce them
osteocytes are arranged
in concentric layers (circular) around a central canal (haversian system)
central canal
runs parallel to the surface of the bone and contain blood vessels that supply the osteon(bone cell)
perforating canals
run perpendicular to the surface (volmanns canal)
-deliver blood to osteons deeper in the bone and service the interior marrow cavity
concentric lamellae
each osteon are cylindrical and aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone
-form a series of concentric rings around the central canal
-collagen fibers spiral along the length of each lamella, strengthens osteon
interstital lamellae
fill spaces between the osteons "stitches"
circumferential lamella
occur at external and internal surfaces of the bone
spongy bone
parallel lamellae from struts or thin branching plates called traceulae which gives it considerable strength
-genarally no osteons
--nutrients reach osteocytes by duffusion along canaliculi that open into the surfaces of the trabeculae
-frame work = lighter
presence of spongy bone reduces the weight of the skeleton =much easier for muscles to move the bones
compact vs spongy
compact-thickest where stress arrive from limited directions
compact bone surrounds medllary cavity - bone has 2 ends (epiphyses) serperated by tubular diaphysis.connected by narrow metaphysis
osteons run parallel to axis = strength along axis(straw)
spongy- capable of resisting stresses from different directions - abundant in epiphyses
open trabecular framework provides protection for bone marrow
yellow=energy;found in shaft
red=blood cells formation; found in epiphyses
periosteum
layer of compact bone is covered by the periosteum
-outter fibrous layer of dense connective tissue
-inner cellular layer containing osteoprogenitor cells
does not surround sesamoid bones or where bone surfaces are covered by articular cartilages
near joints peristeum becomes continuous with connective tissue, helps stabilize joint
periosteum
1 protects the bone
2 circulatory/nervous supply
3 bone growth
4 attaches bone to connective tissue
perforating fibers
collagen fibers incorporated into bone tissue from tendons and superficial periosteum
-powerful pull on tendon will usually break bone rather than snap collagen fibers at bone surface
bone development and growth
determines size and proportion of body
bony skeleton begins to form about 6 weeks after fertilzation and continues during adolescence
ossification
process of replacing other tissues with bone
=formation of bone
calcification
deposition of calcium salts with in a tissue
intramembraneous
bone develops from mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue
begins when mesenchymal cells differintiate into osteoblasts within embryotic/fibrous connective
occurs in deeper layers of dermis
frontal/parietal bones
skull
mandible
lower jaw
clavicle
collarbone
sesamoid bones
with in tendons, patella
osteoblasts cluster together and begin to secrete organic components of matrix
...
endochronal ossification
begins with formation of hyaline cartliage model
initial formation of limb bones are comprimised of cartliage
cartliage models continue to grow
by interstitial growth-expansion of the cartliage matrix
-enlarges cartliage from with in
appositional growth-priduction of more cartliage at the outter surface
-increases dimension of cartilage by adding to its surface
increasing length
during initial stages of osteogenesis osteoblasts move away from the primary ossification center toward the epiphyses but cartliage of the epiphyses continue to grow
cartliage being replaced by bone
shaft side of metaphysis osteoblasts are continually invading the cartilage and replacing i with bone
on the epiphyseal side new cartilage is being replaced at same rate
result:skeletal element continues to grow longer and longer
osteoblasts migrate
secondary ossifiaction center
cartilage growth =
osteoblast invasion = increase in bone length
epiphyseal closure
epiphyseal cartliage gets continually narrower until ultimately disspears
diamerter of bone
enlarges thru appositional growth at the outer surface
adds successive layers of curcumferential lamellae to the outter surface of the bone
over time deeper lamellae are recycled and replaced with the osteons typial of compact bone
osteoprogenitor cells
inner layer of the periosteum differentiate into osteoblasts and add bone martix to the surface