Fitness and Wellness Chapter 2

Sharon's Experience
prior to her marriage, she never really tried jogging. her and her fiance started running together and after 5 years she was able to run for 60 minutes
belief in the ability to perform a given task
the desire and will to do something
Locus of Control
a concept examining the extent to which a person believes he or she can influence the external environment
Changing Behavior
1. Stopping a negative behavior
2. preventing relapse to a negative behavior
3. Developing a positive behavior
4. Strengthening a positive behavior
5. Maintaining a positive behavior
Learning theories
behavior modification perspective stating that most behaviors are learned and maintained under complex schedules of reinforcement and anticipated outcomes
Problem-solving model
behavior modification model proposing that many behaviors are the result of making decisions as the individual seeks to solve the problem behavior
Social Cognitive Theory
behavior modification model holding that behavior change is influenced by the environment, self-efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior
Relapse prevention model
behavior modification model based on the principle that high-risk situations can be anticipated through the development of strategies to prevent lapses and relapses
to slip or fall back temporarily into unhealthy behaviors; short-term failure to maintain healthy behaviors
to slip or fall back into unhealthy behavior over a long time; longer-term failure to maintain healthy behaviors
Transtheoretical Model
behavior modification model proposing that change is accomplished through a series of progressive stages in keeping with a person's readiness to change
Precomtemplation stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual is unwilling to change behavior
Contemplation Stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual is considering changing behavior within the next 6 months
Prepartation Stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual is getting ready to make a change within the next month
Action Stage
Stage of Change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual is actively changing a negative behavior or adopting a new, healthy behavior
Maintenance Stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual maintains behavior change for up to 5 years
Termination or Adoption Stage
stage of change in the transtheoretical model in which the individual has eliminated an undesirable behavior or maintained a positive behavior for more than 5 years
Process of Change
Actions that help you achieve change in behavior
Behavior Modification
the process of permanently changing negative behaviors to positive behaviors that lead to better health and well-being
Techniques of change
methods or procedures used during each process of change
the ultimate aims toward which effort is directed
SMART (goals)
an acronym used in reference to specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, and time-specific goals
Steps requires to reach a goal
Environment Influences on Physical Activite
home, work, and public spaces encourage inactivity
Three Barriers to Take Action
1. Problems of Competence
2. Problems of Confidence
3. Problems of Motivation
Sources of Self-efficacy
mastery experiences
verbal experiences
verbal persuasion
physiological cues
Internal Locus of Control
Promotes Change
External Locus of Control
greater challenge to behavior change
Speficic and Measurable Goals
stated in a way that allows them to be quantified
Action Oriented Goals
deal with specific physical activity or eating behaviors
Realistic Goals
Realistic Enough to achieve but difficult enough to be challenging
Long Term Goals
may take several months or a year to obtain
Short Term Goals
daily and weekly goals which provide a sense of daily purpose
occurs when individuals "tune in" to what their body is feeling and internal sensations such as heart rate, breathing, and how their muscles feel
occurs when a person tunes out sensory feedback
Extrinsic Reinforcers
outside rewards for doing something
Intrinsic Reinforcers
comes from self satisfaction