AP World History Chinese Dynasties
Terms in this set (10)
160-1100 BCE Rose in the Hwang Ho River Valley (yellow river valley) controlled large parts of china and had a powerful military. Shang was isolated and believed that they were the center of the world. Called their civilization "All under Heaven" Believed in a patriarchal structure of family with the oldest male leading the house hold. Ended when ousted by Wu Wang and the Zhou (chou) dynasty was established
1100-256 BCE Ruled China for 900 years. Believed in the Mandate of Heaven meaning that heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely. Developed a feudal system in china. Similar to that of Europe in the middle ages. Developed Bureaucracies within their governments which were a way of organizing government by tasks by department or bureaus so that different parts of government could specialize and stabilize. Fighting and conflict among the Feudal kingdoms caused the Zhou Dynasty to fall in 256
221-206 BCE Extremely short. Developed a strong economy based on agriculture and created a powerful army equipped with Iron. Connected the separate fortification walls that eventually became the GREAT WALL OF CHINA.
206BCE-406CE Lasted for 400 years. Developed the Civil Service exam based on the teachings of Confucius. Believed that those involved in government should be highly educated and excellent communicators. Paper, highly accurate sundials and calendars were created as well the compass and the rudder. Cause of fall- officials exempt from taxes; difficult to collect from peasant population. Population increased leading to less land per family, corruption of court officials, unable to control estate owners, constant conflict with the nomadic Xiongnu who invaded after its collapse
618-907 CE Began ruling in 618 under Emperor Xuanzong and expanded territory into parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Korea. As the empire became so large warlords gained more and more power and the Tang Dynasty collapsed. Best known for its Poetry
960-1279 CE China was reunited under Emperor Taizu. There was a long period of peace and prosperity. The Song Dynasty eventually fell to the Jurchen and then the Mongols until the Mongols established the Yuan Dynasty in its place in 1279. They helped expand the use of the written word and created encyclopedias and histories. The printing press was developed during this dynasty
1279-1368 CE The Mongols established this dynasty after the fall of the Song Dynasty. It lasted less than a century. The Mongols were driven from China in and in 1368 the Ming Dynasty was established
1368-1644 CE Ming built a strong central government based on traditional Confucian principles, reinstated the civil service examination and removed the Mongol influence by reinvigorating Chinese culture. Became ever more isolated and self-focused. By the 16th century the Ming Dynasty was in decline and problems internally and externally lead to its final collapse in 1644.
1644-1912 CE In 1644 Ming emperor invited a group of Qing warriors from nearby Manchuria to help him quell a peasant uprising but instead the Qing ousted the emperor. They were not technically Chinese and forbid Chinese from learning Manchurian or marring Manchus. They added Mongolia, Tibet, Vietnam, Burma and Nepal to their territory. Banned Christianity in 1724 and restricted trade in 1757 to just one city.
1911- present Led by Sun Yat-sen, China became more westernized and they boot out the Europeans and Japanese who established spheres of influence. Sun Yat sen promoted his Three Principles of the People-Nationalism, Socialism and democracy. In 1930's Japan attempted to take over all of China and communists allied with Soviet Union in Northern China and communism begins to spread. 4 years after WWII china falls in to civil war over which political path to take (communism or democracy) the Democratic group was forced to the Island of Taiwan where they established the Republic of China and those on the mainland called themselves the People's republic of china. In 1973 the UN and the USA recognized People's Republic of China as the true China. China and Taiwan have never reunited and remain separate but close to this day.