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ATI Health Promotion of Toddlers (1 to 3 Years)
Terms in this set (16)
Identify the developmental stage
Piaget: Preoperational Stage
Erikson: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Identify all physical development that
occurs in this stage
• Anterior fontanels close by 18 months of age.
• Weight - At 30 months of age, toddlers should weigh four times their birth weights.
• Height - Toddlers grow about 7.5 cm (3 in) per year.
• Head circumference and chest circumference are usually equal by 1 to 2 years of age
Identify the cognitive development that occurs in this stage
• Piaget - The sensorimotor stage transitions to the preoperational stage around the age of 19 to 24 months.
• The concept of object permanence becomes fully developed.
• Toddlers have and demonstrate memories of events that relate to them.
• Domestic mimicry (playing house) is evident.
• Preoperational thought does not allow for toddlers to understand other viewpoints, but it does allow them to symbolize objects and people to imitate previously seen activities
Language increases to about 300 words by the age of 2 years.
1 year - use one-word sentences, or holophrases
2 years - use multiword sentences by combining two to three words
3 years - combine several words to create simple sentences using grammatical rules
Psychosocial Development: Erikson- Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
■ Independence is paramount for toddlers, who are attempting to do everything for themselves.
■ Toddlers often use negativism, or negative responses, as they begin to express
■ Ritualism, or maintaining routines and reliability, provides a sense of comfort for toddlers as
they begin to explore the environment beyond those most familiar to them.
What are age-appropriate activities for toddlers?
Filling and emptying containers
Playing with blocks
Looking at books
■12 to 15 months - Inactivated poliovirus (IPV) (third dose between 6 to 18 months); Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib); pneumococcal vaccine (PCV); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); and varicella
■12 to 23 months - Hepatitis A (Hep A), given in two doses at least 6 months apart
■15 to 18 months - Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP)
■12 to 36 months - Yearly seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV); live, attenuated
influenza vaccine (LAIV) by nasal spray (at 2 years of age)
Toddlers begin developing taste preferences, and are generally picky eaters who repeatedly request
their favorite foods.Physiologic anorexia occurs, resulting in toddlers becoming fussy eaters because of a
decreased appetite. Toddlers should consume 24 to 30 oz of milk per day, and may switch from drinking whole milk to
drinking low-fat milk after 2 years of age. Juice consumption should be limited to 4 to 6 oz per day. Trans fatty acids and saturated fats should be avoided. Diet should include 1 cup of fruit daily. Food serving size should be 1 tbsp for each year of age, or ¼ to 1/3 of an adult portion. Toddlers generally prefer finger foods because of increasing autonomy. Regular meal times and nutritious snacks best meet nutrient needs.
Snacks or desserts that are high in sugar, fat, or sodium should be avoided.Foods that are potential choking hazards (nuts, grapes, hot dogs, peanut butter, raw carrots, tough
meats, popcorn) should be avoided. Adult supervision should always be provided during snack and mealtimes. Foods should be cut into small, bite-size pieces to make them easier to swallow and to prevent choking. Toddlers should not be allowed to engage in drinking or eating during play activities or while lying down.
Injury Prevention: Aspiration of foreign objects
1. Small objects (grapes, coins, candy) that can become lodged in the throat should be avoided.
2. Toys that have small parts should be kept out of reach.
3. Age-appropriate toys should be provided.
4. Clothing should be checked for safety hazards (loose buttons).
5. Balloons should be kept away from toddlers.
6. Parents should know emergency procedures for choking.
Injury Prevention: Bodily harm
1. Sharp objects should be kept out of reach.
2. Firearms should be kept in locked boxes or cabinets.
3. Toddlers should not be left unattended with any animals present.
4. Toddlers should be taught stranger safety.
Injury Prevention: Burns
1. The temperature of bath water should be checked.
2. Thermostats on hot water heaters should be turned down to 49° C (120° F) or below.
3. Working smoke detectors should be kept in the home.
4. Pot handles should be turned toward the back of the stove.
5. Electrical outlets should be covered.
6. Toddlers should wear sunscreen when outside.
Injury Prevention: Drowning
1. Toddlers should not be left unattended in bathtubs.
2. Toilet lids should be kept closed.
3. Toddlers should be closely supervised when near pools or any other body of water.
4. Toddlers should be taught to swim.
Injury Prevention: Falls
1. Doors and windows should be kept locked.
2. Crib mattresses should be kept in the lowest position with the rails all the way up.
3. Safety gates should be used across the top and bottom of stairs.
Injury Prevention: Motor-vehicle injuries
1. Infants and toddlers remain in a rear-facing car seat until the age of 2 years or the height recommended by the manufacturer.
2. Toddlers over the age of 2 years, or who exceed the height recommendations for rear-facing car seats, are moved to a forward-facing car seat.
3. Safest area for infants and children is the backseat of the car.
4. Do not place rear-facing car seats in the front seat of vehicles with deployable passenger airbags.
Injury Prevention: Poisoning
1. Exposure to lead paint should be avoided.
2. Safety locks should be placed on cabinets that contain cleaners and other chemicals.
3. The phone number for a poison control center should be kept near the phone.
4. Medications should be kept in childproof containers, away from the reach of toddlers.
5. A working carbon monoxide detector should be placed in the home.
Injury Prevention: Suffocation
1. Plastic bags should be avoided.
2. Crib mattresses should fit tightly.
3. Crib slats should be no farther apart than 6 cm (2.375 in).
4. Pillows should be kept out of cribs.
5. Drawstrings should be removed from jackets and other clothing.
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