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Terms in this set (128)

Collective rationalization refers to the tendency of a group to invent reasons to justify group behavior, even when that behavior appears to be irrational. In this scenario, the advisors generate reasons to support a plan that evidence indicates is failing.

Normative influence occurs when an individual feels pressed accept the beliefs or behavior of a majority of some group in order to feel accepted by that group. In this scenario, normative influence likely occurs when the leader indicates to individual team members that the entire team supports his plan.

Illusions of invulnerability occur when members of a group believe that they are invulnerable to the negative consequences of their actions. This scenario does not directly depict any sense of invulnerability among the advisors.

Informational influence occurs when members of a group are only presented with one-sided information in support of a majority view. In this scenario, the "confidential studies" cited by the leader may exert an informational influence on the advisors.

Groupthink is the tendency for groups to maintain irrational beliefs or behaviors in order to maintain group harmony. In this scenario, the advisors continue to support the leader's plan even when evidence indicates that it is failing. Collective rationalization, normative influence, and informational influence all contribute to groupthink. (Illusions of invulnerability can also contribute to groupthink, but there is no evidence of it in this particular scenario.)
attributional bias is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of behaviors; however, attributions do not always accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations of their social world. If police know the welfare schedule and they make harsher judgements based on their perceptions of those on welfare, this would be attributional bias.

Framing bias (or the framing effect) is one of many factors which affect a person's decisions. Just like how a picture may be framed in many different ways to change the viewer's impression, the way an option or decision is presented to a person will change how they feel about it and influence their likelihood to make a particular choice.
An example from everyday life could be the way that two different people frame their beliefs about the same used car. One person might say, "oh, it's a real reliable car", giving off a positive impression, and the other might say, "it's old and worn", spinning a negative impression.

Automation bias is the tendency to excessively depend on automated systems, which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions. While this may lead to MHAs where they are not needed (if the police just rote followed protocol), it would not explain the apparent relationship between MHAs and welfare check distribution.

Egocentric bias is the tendency to overstress changes between the past and present in order to make oneself appear more worthy or competent than one actually is. According to the results from several conducted studies, individuals are also more likely to favor circumstances that are beneficial to themselves compared to those that favor the people around them.
Reaction formation - unconsciously do the opposite of your true desires. For example, if the leader really wanted the participants to keep smoking, she would emphatically discuss how they should quit.

Rationalization happens when a person uses false but logical reasons to explain a feeling or desire. For example, the leader might say that she's only craving cigarettes because everyone else is talking about quitting, when, in reality, her cravings started before she began leading the program.

Sublimation is the process of transferring unacceptable urges or impulses into more acceptable behaviors. For example, if a man has undesirable and unrequited sexual desire for a woman, he might sublimate those urges and write a poem or love song.

Transference is the inappropriate transferring of feelings about one relationship to another. The classic example is a patient transferring childhood feelings about a parent onto their therapist.

George Mead theorized that one's identity is developed through social interaction. In order to develop a self, an individual has to be able to view his- or herself through the eyes of others, which is a skill that must be learned. Mead proposed two versions of the self: the "me" and the "I." The "me" is the attitudes, roles, meanings, pressures, and values of society and others around the individual that are organized into one's social self through role-taking. The "I" is the part of the self that can be identified with desires, freedom, and creativity. Essentially, the "me" is the social self and the "I" is one's response to the "me." Through socialization, individuals learn to look at the world through others' perspectives.