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Terms in this set (139)
Tissue w/ cells joined tightly together, covers body/linings/glands/sensory receptors
Tissue that protects/connects body parts together, can be dense/loose/fatty
Ex: cartilage, tendons, blood, lymph
Cushions/supports body parts, jelly-like
Ex: ear, nose
Transports oxygen to cells, removes waste, carries hormones, defends against disease
Hard tissue that supports/protects tissue/organs, provides structure to body (RBC produced in marrow)
Helps support/move body
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Smooth, cardiac, skeletal
Located in brain/spinal cord/nerves, sense/conduct/store information
What are the 11 organ systems? (In alphabetical order)
Cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, urinary
Towards the midline
Away from the midline
Towards the center of the body/origin
Away from the center of the body/origin
Structures in front (towards head)
Structures in the back (towards butt)
Going towards the head
Going towards the feet
Towards the back
Towards the stomach
Separates the body into left/right
Separates the body into front/back
Transverse (horizontal) plane
Separates body into upper/lower
What is included in the upper respiratory system?
Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx
What is included in the lower respiratory system?
Trachea, lungs, bronchial tree
Trap debris/sweep them towards the mouth
Which lung has 3 lobes and which has 2?
Right = 3 (superior, middle, inferior)
Left = 2 (superior, inferior)
Reduces friction between surfaces when breathing
What is the main function of the respiratory system?
Supplies body w/oxygen + removes waste (CO2)
Site of gas exchange (1 cell thick)
Describe the process of inhalation (inspiration)
1. Diaphragm contracts/moves down (like a pump)
2. Chest expands (volume increases)
3. Chest pressure decreases
4. Air rushes into lungs
Describe the process of exhalation (expiration)
1. Diaphragm relaxes
2. Chest volume decreases
3. Chest pressure increases
4. Air is forced out of the lungs
Low blood pH
High blood pH
Hyperventilation _______ blood pH
Hypoventilation ________ blood pH
Breathing is controlled by the __________
What is the main function of the circulatory (cardiovascular) system?
Transports substances to/from cells
What are the 3 parts of the circulatory system?
Blood, blood vessels, heart
What is blood composed of?
Water, solutes, other elements (red/white blood cells, platelets, plasma)
Tubules that transport blood
Composed of cardiac tissue, acts as pump to keep blood flowing
Name the 3 layers of blood vessel walls
Tunica intima (innermost), tunica media (middle), tunica adventitia (outermost)
Stretch when blood forced out of heart/recoil under low pressure
Regulate blood flow by vasoconstriction/dilation
Tiny vessels leading to capillary beds, control blood flow to capillaries
Empty blood into larger veins
Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart ('A' in artery stands for Away)
Carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart
Red blood cells
Transport oxygen to cells
White blood cells
Defend to body against infection/removes waste
What are the types of white blood cells?
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas)
Fragments of stem cells involved in blood clotting
Separates atrium and ventricle of heart
Fills ventricles of heart (systole)
Empties ventricles of heart (diastole)
Describe blood flow THROUGH the heart
1. Blood flows through superior/inferior vena cava into right atrium
2. Blood flows from right atrium through AV valve into right ventricle
3. SA node generates electrical signals carried by Purkinje fibers to fill right ventricle with blood
4. Pulmonary semilunar valve opens, blood from pulmonary arteries to lungs
Describe blood flow TO the heart
1. Blood flows through pulmonary veins into left atrium
2. Mitral valve opens to fill left ventricle with blood
3. Aortic semilunar valve opens to contract left ventricle
4. Blood pumped through aorta to body
Flow of blood to heart tissue
Flow of blood between heart/lungs
Flow of blood to entire blood (excluding heart/lungs)
Flow of blood from digestive system to liver/heart
Flow of blood between heart/kidneys
What is the main function of the lymphatic system?
Return excess tissue fluid to bloodstream
Return protein from capillaries, transport fats from digestive tract, dispose of debris/cellular waste
Name the lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, adenoids, thymus, tonsils
Filters blood stores of red blood cells/macrophages
Filters unwanted materials from blood + help fights infections
Secretes hormones, serves as major site of lymphocyte production
Connects stomach to spleen
Connects kidney to spleen
Connects left colic flexure to the thoracic diaphragm
What does the term movement refer to in the digestive system?
Mixes/passes nutrients through digestive system/eliminates waste
What does the term secretion refer to in the digestive system?
Secretes enzymes/hormones/other substances necessary for digestion into digestive tract
What does the term digestion refer to in the digestive system?
Chemical breakdown of nutrients into smaller units that enter internal environment
What does the term absorption refer to in the digestive system?
Passage of nutrients into plasma membrane into blood/lymph then into body
What are the 3 main functions of the stomach?
1. Mixes/stores food w/ chyme
2. Dissolves/degrades food via secretions
3. Controls passage of food into small intestine
Describes movement of nutrients by relaxing/contracting
Name the 4 lobes of the liver
Right, left, quadrate, caudate
Name the 5 ligaments of the liver
Falciform, coronary, right triangulr, left triangular, round
The functional units of the liver are the ________
Name the 3 parts of the small intestine
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
First part of small intestine
Middle part of small intestine
Tail portion of small intestine (longest portion)
The pancreas is made of _______ tissue(s)
Endocrine AND exocrine
Secretes digestive enzymes from main pancreatic duct (Wirsung's duct)
Secretes hormones into bloodstream
What is the main function of the pancreas?
Aids digestion by secreting enzymes to small intestine to break down food
ex: lipase, amylase
Groups of exocrine cells
Most nutrients are absorbed in the ______________
Secreted by liver to emulsify fat, stored in gall bladder
Absorptive structures that increase surface area of small intestine
Epithelial cells on the surface of villi that further increase absorption by small intestine
What is the main function of the colon/large intestine?
Concentrates/mixes/stores waste material
Short tube for waste disposal
What is the main function of the nervous system?
Senses/interprets/issues commands in response to body conditions
Transmit signals to the central nervous system to sensory receptors (associated w/ pain, touch, temperature, smell, etc.)
Transmit signals from CNS to rest of body using signaling muscles/glands
Transmit signals between neurons
Receives impulses/transmits them towards cell body (soma)
Cell body (soma)
Contains nucelus of neuron
Transmits impulse away cell body (soma)
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between myelin sheath
What myelin sheath made of?
Rolled Schwann cells
What makes up the central nervous system?
Brain + spinal cord
What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
12 pairs of cranial nerves + 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Name the 3 parts of the brain
Hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
What does the hindbrain consist of?
Medulla oblongata, cerebellum, pons
Integrates sensory information/orchestrates responses
What does the forebrain consist of?
Cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus
What are the 5 lobes of the brain?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
Responsible for information processing, decision making/planning/judgement
Responsible for sensory input (pain, temperature, touch, etc)/spatial positioning of body
Responsible for auditory input (hearing)/processing/output
Responsible for visual input (sight)/processing/output
Plays role in processing/storing implicit memories developed during classical conditioning
Name the 3 parts of the brain stem
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What does the midbrain consist of?
Tectum, tegmentum,ventral tegmentum
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress ("fight or flight" nerves)
Control basic body function, return body to normal after response to stress
What is the main function of the autonomic nervous system?
Maintains homeostasis using hypothalamus
What are the 2 divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic nervous system
Controls the body's reaction to extreme/stressful/ emergency situations
ex: secretion of adrenaline, dilation of pupils
Parasympathetic nervous system
Counteracts effects of sympathetic nervous system
ex: decreases heart rate, returns digestion to normal, stops secretion of adrenaline
Away from brain (CNS)
Towards brain (CNS)
Involuntary movement in response to stimulus
Describe the movement of a message through a reflex arc
Afferent/sensory neuron --> interneuron --> efferent/motor neuron --> effector
What 3 properties do all muscles have in common?
Excitability, contraction, elongation
Ability to respond to stimuli (muscles contain electric gradient)
Ability to shorten
Ability to relax/stretch
Skeletal muscles (striated = striped)
Voluntary, composed of muscle fibers, responsible for movement of body
Smooth muscles (visceral = non-striped)
Involuntary, found in walls of internal organs/sphincters/valves
Cardiac muscle (striated = striped)
Involuntary muscle of heart
Skeletal muscle fibers are made of _______ which are composed of __________
Protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction, makes up thick filament of myofibril
Thin filament of myofibril
1. Action potential causes calcium ions to be released
2. Calcium ions bind to actin/myosin
3. Myosin heads are bound to actin molecules
4. ATP is released to provide energy for contraction
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