APUSH Ch. 7: The Jeffersonian Era
Terms in this set (30)
Public and private education
Republicans believed all male citizens should receive free education. The MA law of 1789 said each town was obligated to support a school but had little reinforcement. Schooling was was primarily the responsibility of private institutions: South and Mid-Atlantic-run by religious groups; New England-more secular, many modeled on schools founded by Phillips family in Andover, MA 1778. 1789-MA required public schools serve females.
United States lexicographer (1758-1843), American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
American authors and nationalism
Printers preferred to publish popular works by English writers; only those American writers willing to pay the cost and bear the risk of publishing their own works could compete for public attention. Washington Irving wrote the American legends that future generations are still familiar with
deism and religious skepticism
Definition: Deists accepted the existence of God, but considered him a remote being that after creating the universe, withdrew from involvement with the human race. In the 1790's less than 10% of white Americans belonged to a formal church. People started rejecting the idea of predestination, which led to the Second Great Awakening.
Significance: Deism led to a time period when it was common for a family to not attend any church, which was very unlike the fundamental beliefs of many of the religious groups. This time period proved that the need for some kind of reform was visible.
Deism originated among Enlightment philosopher in France; accepted existence of God but considered Him a remote being who, after having created the universe, had withdrawn from direct involvement w/the human race & its sins. Religious skepticism produced philosophies of "Universalism" and "Unitarianism"
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Eli Whitney and the cotton gin
Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin and the first to use the system of interchangeable parts. Cotton gin cleaned cotton of its seed. It fastened slavery to the south. Apparently he was ironic because he invented something that helped slavery but also something that helped industrialism which helped end slavery by starting the civil war.
Robert Fulton and the steamboat
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston were responsible for perfecting the steamboat and bringing it to the attention of the public.
in 1812 the Clermont model from Fulton and Livingston was being used for transportation to and from New Orleans.
Fulton was an inventor, Livingston was a promoter
These early improvements in the nation's transportation system were somewhat improved roads built by private companies to replace old wagon trails. The companies then charged tolls to all who used the roads.
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Events: Alexander Hamilton killed. Embargo Act. Louisiana Purchase. American ships bombard the coast of Tripoli to stop the looting of the Barbary Pirates
1801-1809; by the end of second term, all of the government jobs were in the hands of loyal Republicans. He abolished all internal taxes, drastically reduced gov spending, cut the national debt in half, scaled down the armed forces (army and navy)
Located on the Potomac River and was built in the late 1700s according to the plans laid out by Pierre L'Enfant: New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C.
capital of the u.s. was moved here during washington's presidenticy. The secretary of treasury, Hamilton assumed the 80 million dollar debt a national debt and guaranteed to pay everyone back.= he nationalized the debt. The south was suspicious because the southern states didn't owe that much debt. Hamilton promised the new capital would be built in the south so the southerners could watch over affairs. This appeased them and ended in dc.
Barbary Coast piracy
The Barbary States of North Africa demanded protection money from all nations who sailed the Mediterranean Sea.
Jefferson decided to stop tributes and build up a navy and choose war instead of paying the tributes.
1801 the pasha of tripoli declared war with America
1805 united States reached an agreement with the pasha that ended the payments of tribute, however the US had to pay a ransom of $60,000 to get back prisoners that were captured by the Barbary pirates.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
United States jurist
EX. as chief justice of the Supreme Court he established the principles of United States constitutional law (1755-1835)
Est. judicial law etc
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Treaty of San Ildefonso 1800
This was a secret treaty made in 1800. It involved the French and Spanish. In this treaty, France regained title to Louisiana. Napoleon hoped that this territory would be the heart of a great French empire in America.
The Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon deserted desires for France to expand in America when the need for more troops in Europe hindered plans, and ordered Talleyrand to offer Louisiana to the Americans. Livingston and Moore decided to accept this offer without consulting with Jefferson because there was no time. Though it did double the size of the country, people were worried if this went against the Constitution's rights for the federal government, and if it had the ability to purchase territory and to grant citizenship to 50,000 people living in Louisiana. They finally agreed to overlook this for the good sense of the country, but Jefferson abandoned is strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
EX. led by Merriwether Lewis and William Clark; traveled from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River from 1803/1804 to 1806
to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
(1799-1815) a series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British; a factor in the War of 1812.
Embargo of 1808
The U.S. tried to hurt Britain and France by cutting off the supplies they needed from America because it banned all the U.S.'s foreign trade.
Non-Intercourse Act 1809
Replaced the embargo policy by allowing American trade with all countries except Britain and France; like the Embargo Act, this attempt to use American trade as an instrument of foreign policy failed. British and French interference with U.S. shipping continued and the Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810.
Created just before Madison took office; later replaced with Macon's Bill No. 2. Napoleon announced France would not interfere with American trade.
* Jackson set on Indian removal. Indians resisted resulting in "Black Hawk War" & "Seminole War".
* Cherokee brought suit to U.S. Supreme Court, Justice John Marshall ruled in their favor, but had no power to enforce ruling. Cherokee forcibly removed on "Trail of Tears".
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, that welded a far-flung confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi. The Prophet was discredited by attacking a much larger American army, and Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames. Their actions were in response to the flood of western-bound settlers, and resulted in Indian unity and cultural revival. The death of Tecumseh ended the hope of an Indian confederacy.
Spain and Florida
Southern states wanted Florida from the Spanish because it caused many problems: slaves escaped over the border, Indians attacked whites, and if they had control ovver Florida, they would have access to important ports. In 1810, Americans in west Florida seized control of the Spanish port Baton Rouge, and asked the Federal government to take control of the area. Madison complied, creating more problems with the British, who were allies of the French, and ultimately becoming a cause for war with the British.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
British lost to the U.S. Fought after the war was over. We only lost 8 men. British lost over 2000 soldiers. Andrew Jackson became a war hero which is the main reason he becomes president.
Hartford Convention 1814
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island met in 1814 in Hartford, Connecticut for a secret meeting to discuss their disgust of the war and to redress their grievances. The Hartford Convention's final report demanded:
-Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargos;
-Constitutional amendments requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared;
-The abolition of slavery; -a President could only serve 1 term;
-the abolition of the 3/5 clause;
-the prohibition of the election of 2 successive Presidents from the same state.
The Hartford resolutions marked the DEATH of the Federalist party. The party nominated their last presidential candidate in 1816.
Treaty of Ghent 1814
was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum. Due to the era's slow speed of communication, it took weeks for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States, well after the Battle of New Orleans had begun.
Rush-Bagot Agreement 1817
disarmament pact between US and Britain; strictly limited Naval armament on the Great Lakes; the agreement was extended to place limits on border fortifications; border between US and Canada is the largest unfortified border in the world
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