US History Civil War
Terms in this set (57)
Columbus 'discovers' America
Arrival of African American Slaves
U.S. constitution ratifies
Dred Scott Case
Marbury v. Madison
Declaration of Independence
Robert E. Lee
A talented military leader who lived in Virginia-when they seceded, lee resigned from the US army and joined the Confederacy. He opposed slavery and the secession, but he could not abandon his birthplace. He became the commanding general of the army of Northern Virginia.
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war
Refers to a persons right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial.
Suspended by Lincoln to enforce the militia law
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
Confederacy Advantages in Civ. War
7/8 military colleges. European textile factories relied on southern planters for cotton
Confederacy Disadvantages in Civ. War
Few people working to support war effort b/c everyone had to fight.
Inability to distribute food. 1/2 as many roads as the North, only one railroad going west. Planters were in debt. Ports blockaded by the North.
Union Advantages in Civ. War
3/4 of U.S. Navy offices & large number of trained sailors.
All of U.S. warships. 13 million more people. Factories= economic advantage. Manufacturing of firearms and gunpowder. Control of nations treasury and tariffs.
Union disadvantages in Civ. War
Split on goal- Abolitionists and Union Preservationists.
How were Northerners Divided over Civ. War
Abolitionists and those who wanted to preserve the union even if it meant allowing slavery in the south.
Jefferson Davis problems in governing Conferderacy
Confederacy constitution emphasized states rights and limited central government power.
Citizens and leaders objected to confederacy forcing people to join the army.
Outrage from Southerners b/c of the defensive war strategy, they believed themselves to be superior fighters.
Military technology and battle techniques introduced in Civ. War
Trenches and barricades = deadly situation for attacking army. High casualties.
Attrition= the wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of supplies and soldiers.
War strategy developed for south by Jefferson Davis
Defensive war of attrition- force Union to spend resources until too tired and then they would negotiate
North's Anaconda Plan
Blocade confederate ports & send gunboats down the Mississippi River to divide Confederacy who would then gradually run out of resources and surrender. Would take time but would defeat south with least amount of bloodshed.
Tomas J. Jackson, general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops (from Virginia) at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
Winner of first battle of Bull Run and what it signaled to the north
Confederacy won. Signaled the North would need a large well trained army to defeat the south.
Virginia (merrimack) v. the Monitor
Merrimack was a union warship captured by the south and covered in iron, renamed the Virginia. Sank 2 Union ships guarding the James river on 3/8/1862 killing 240 Union sailors. Next day the Unions iron clad ship, the monitor, and the Virginia fought for hours, neither ship wwon but the Monitors presence kept the Virginia from giving the South an advantage.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union General, planned to take the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers.
.April 6th 1862, Confederate troops surprise attacked union troops. Grant was advised to retreat but instead he went on the offensive the next day. 20,000 of Grants troops were killed and people wanted him fired but Lincoln said we need him because he fights.
George B. McClellen
ordered by Lincoln to lead union in the East after McDowell's failure. Popular among the troops but overly cautious. took 30 days to capture Yorktown. Then allowed troops to be separated by Chickahominy river which gave the south the advantage
2nd Battle of Bull Run
initiated by South; forced North to retreat leaving Confederated forces only 20 miles from Washington
September 22, 1862. Lincoln publicly announced a decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after Jan 1, 1863; only addressed slavery in states @ war w/Union, not slavery in border states.
Naval war accomplishments by the South in 1st 1/2 of war
Blockade runners able to keep exports going out, Alabama captured 64 Union ships, Florida destroyed 38 merchant ships
Naval war accomplishments by the North in 1st 1/2 of war
Seemed to have upper hand. Blockade in the South, Captured New Orleans (Farragut), South's largest city and center of cotton trade
When and why Lee decided to invade the North
After the 2nd Battle of Bull Run; 1).only an invasion would convince the North to accept the South's independence; 2). victory on Northern soil might help win recognition from the British; 3). help Peace Democrats gain control of the Congress in upcoming midterm elections; 4) feed Southern troops from Northern farms
Significance about the Battle of Antiedam
British decided again to wait to support the South; South lost chance at gaining international recognition; convinced Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation
Why Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclimation
to punish the South; to make soldiers' sacrifices worthwhile; winning @ Antiedam; to avoid endangering border states loyalty (slavery in border states not addressed); to define what the war was about (union preservation/abolitionism)
Among first African American regiments officially recognized in the North after war; New York Tribune declared the heroism of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment forever answered the question of whether African Americans could make good soldiers. They fought valiantly @ Fort Wagner in July 1863 losing 1/2 of men in battle
left job @ patent office to nurse soldiers on the battlefield; fed the sick, bandaged the wounded and dug out bullets with her own small knife.
most infamous prison in the South; in Georgia. open camp with no shade or shelter. exposure, overcrowding, lack of food and disease killed more than 100 men/day in the summer of 1864; 13,000 of 45000 prisoners died at the camp. Commandant Henry Wiz became the only person executed for war crimes committed during the Civil War
How the South fared by the end of 1863
very poor, little industry. inflation, food shortages led to riots. farms switched from cash crops to food crops. many Confederate soldiers deserted and returned home to help families
How the North fared by the end of 1863
economic boom. industries supplied troops with clothes, munition and other necessities. innovations in agriculture helped minimize loss of labor as men left to fight. women filled labor shortages. sewing machines increased productivity of seamstresses.
What medical problems dramatically increased the number of war casualties?
doctors had little understanding of infectious germs. they used the same unsterilized instruments on patient after patient spreading infections quickly. often regiments lost half their men before even going into battle due to diseases; unsanitary water, smallpox, dysentry, typhoid and pneumonia; doctors amputated A LOT to prevent infections from spreading in the body
Where did Women make the biggest impact in the civil war
a mile wide line of Confederate troops marched across open farm land toward Cemetery Ridge where Union forces stood. Union cannons and guns inflicted 7000 casualties in half an hour; 15,000 in charge under General George Pickett and A.P. Hill
Nov. 1863; Lincoln came to Gettysburg to dedicate portion of battlefield as a military cemetery. Speech became best known oration in American history. Lincoln reminded listeners that the nation was "conceived in liberty and to the proposition that all men are created equal" and explained that the war wasn't a battle between regions but a fight for freedom
Vicksburg and why it was important for the North
May 1863 Grant launched 2 assaults on Vicksburg, city's defenders repulsed both, inflicting high casualties. Grant put Vicksburg under siege, cutting off its food and supplies and bombing them until they gave up. on July 4, 1864 the Confederate commander surrendered. Important for the North because it cut the Confederacy in half
What happened at Gettysburg
Pickett's Charge started with 15,000 men, 5,000 made it to Cemetery Ridge and there they were overwhelmed by Union troops. Lee withdrew and retreated to Virginia. the Union suffered 23,000 casualties and the Confederacy lost 28,000 troops which was more than 1/3 of Lee's entire force
Why was Gettysburg a turning point in the war?
Strengthen Republicans politically, ensured British wouldn't recognize Confederacy, South remained on defense for the rest of the war
Why was Ulysses Grant awarded the appointment of general in chief of the Union forces?
captured Vicksburg giving the Union the Mississippi River, victory at Chattanooga secured eastern Tennessee and cleared the way for invasion of Georgia. His restless urge for offensive fighting and his insistence on unconditional surrender at Fort Donelson.
Started on Nov. 15, 1864. Sherman's troops cut a path of destruction through Georgia 60 miles wide. ransacking houses, burning crops and killing cattle. Dec. 21, 1864 reached coast, seized Savannah, turned north toward S. Carolina where they burned everything (12 towns and Columbia); march demoralized Southerners.
Jan 13, 1865. Banned slavery.
Where Grant's troops blocked Lee's troops forcing Lee to meet with Grant and surrender on April 9, 1865
John Wilkes Booth
An actor who assassinated Lincoln
Why was the Union victory at Atlanta significant for the presidential election of 1864?
revitalized Northern support for war and for Lincoln. Otherwise they would have elected McClellland who promised to stop hostilities and open negotiations with the South to restore Union peaceably.
What were some of Grant's terms of surrender offered to the South?
Guaranteed United States wouldn't prosecute Confederate soldiers for treason. told Confederates to take horses home and put in crops so their families could get through the winter.
When and how was Lincoln assassinated
At Ford's Theater on Ap 14, 1865; shot in the back of the head by Booth after a speech mentioning including African Americans in Southern states' governments
Achievements and upcoming challenges for the Union following their victory in the Civil War?
strengthened power of federal government over states. ended slavery freeing millions of Africa Americans; how to bring Southern states back into Union? status of African Americans in Southern society?