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Had to have access to Atlantic Ocean Discovery of America lead to mercantilism. Trade based on natural resources.

Glorious Revolution

William/Mary take over after James II was driven from power in England; bloodless Revolution. Begin Constitutional monarchy.


Important center for religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Camp David Accords 1978 - diplomatic negotiations. Israel - homeland for Jews.

Treaty of Paris 1783

Ended American Revolution; Gave America their independence from Great Britain.

Industrial Revolution Began in Great Britian

Technology was used to change the economy Mechanization/technology - Use of Machines to mass produce goods.

United Nations (UN)

Established at the end of WWII to international peace and security.

League of Nations

Idea of President Woodrow Wilson in his 14 points. Began foreign policy of Isolationism.

Treaty of Varsailles

Ended WWI, Punished Germany through reparations; leades to WWII.

Final Solution

Nazi Germany's policy toward Jews at the end of WWII.
Hitler: Fascist leader of Germany during WWII.

Balkan Nationalism

Caused the outbreak of WWI in Europe. WWI start because of Balkan nationalism - ethic groups have strong sense of nationalism (price in identify)


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Controls oil prices and production.

Mahatma Gandhi

Leader of Indian Independence by civil disobedience.
Influences the fight for civil rights in South Africa and America.

Spanish Exploration - "Old World Meets New World"

Referred to as Columbian Exchange = European nations bring new products/ideas/animals/plants to the Americas; take back to Europe items from New World.

Church of England (English Reformation)

Was Catholic before Henry VIII.
Protestant was what he changed it to the Anglican Church.


Believed in Heliocentric solar system - earth revolved around the sun.

"Scientific Revolution"

The process of Reasoning could explain happenings in nature.
Newton - developed scientific theories for gravity and motion.

The Renaissance

Rebirth of ideas from Greece and Rome.
Started in Florence, Italy (southern Italy) - b/c good trade location.
Printing Press (Gutenberg) used to spread ideas during the Renaissance and Reformation.

Napolean - FRANCE

First leader of newly created French Republic 1804 - ended royal (monarchy) rule.
Fought for Democratic government of the people.

Romanov Dynasty

Royal Russian family rule up to 1917
Nicholas II last Romanov Ruler

Bolshevik Revolution: 1917

Workers revolt against the Czar Nicholas II
This takes over Russia and begin a social system under Vladimir Lenin

Hapsburg Dynasty

royal German/Austria ruling family up to 1918.
Associated with Balkinization Nationalism. Leading up to WWI (1918) Different ethnicities that resided in the Central European territories under.

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