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______ is one of the best-known university teaches in the twelfth century. His book "Yes" and "No" illustrated contradictions in the positions of past authorities. He argued for a stronger role for reason in Christian epistemology.

Abelard, Peter

Your Face!


______ is the author of the 'Incoherence of the Philosophers/' Attacked the rationality of the Greeks and the concept of casualty. Worked against scientific progress in Islam.


______ is one of the greatest Islamic scientists whose 'Book of Optics' is one of the most influential classics works on vision. He made many original contributions on such topics as depth perception, apparent size, and binocular vision.


______ is a concept that has enjoyed wide usage, especially in premodern times. In Galen's pneuma concept of the soul, the expression animal spirits was used to account for vital psychological function., namely, the operation of higher cognitive functions. Animal spirits contrasted with natuarl spitits. Which account for vegetative functions.

Animal Spirits

______ is one of the greatest doctors of the church, remembered for his heroic efforts to reconcile faith and reason. He is also remembered for advancing an empirically based system of psychological thought.

Aquinas, Thomas

______ is a popular Greek physician who practiced in Rome around 124 BCE. He distinguished between delusions and hallucinations and argued that therapy for emotional problems should be pleasant.


______ is one of the great doctors of the church who wrote extensively about a number of psychological topics including memory, grief, speech, and dreams.

Augustine, Aurelius

_____ is an Islamic scholar very influential in Eroupe because of his commentaries on the works of Aristotle. Known also for many substantive scientific discoveries. He discovered that patients once infected with smallpox become immune if they survive the initial infection. He also discovered that the retina is the part of the eye sensitive to light.


______ is an influential philosopher of the Islamic world who attempted to reconcile the tension between revelation and reason. Also remembered for his Aristotelian approach to psychological problems.


______ is one of the first to write on the sources of error in human thought. His catalog of errors included such things as being a slave to habit, relying too much on authority, giving in to popular prejudices, conceit about one's own knowledge.

Bacon, Roger

______ attempted to use reason that he learned from Greek thought as a defense of Christianity. Some have regarded him as a kind of founder of the intellectual agenda that was to dominate medieval thought.


______ is a Roman stoic philosopher, popular in his day, who emphasizes the stoic virtues of order, discipline, and resignation in those matters beyond our control.


______ is a philosophy based on the goodness of pleasure and the evil of pain. ______ emphasized moderation and the capacity to forgo immediate pleasures for long-term gains.


______ is an important post-Aristotelian philosopher who founded a school of thought that focused largely on how to live the good life by maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.


______ is Rome's greatest physicians, remembered for his early anatomical theories and his speculation on a host of medical problems including the problems the problems of emotional illness.


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