HBSE CH 7
Terms in this set (73)
A small face to face collection of persons who interact to accomplish some purpose. OR two or more individuals in face to face interaction, each aware of his or her membership in the group, each aware of the others who belong to the group, and each aware of their positive interdependence as they strive to achieve mutual goals. Both describe a shared concern for a purpose and common interaction. Therefore, several individuals riding an elevator do not constitute a "group".
History of Group Theory & Practice
Settlement house movement of the early 20th century looked at the influences of groups on individual and community life and used problem solving. This lead to therapeutic and treatment groups. Now groups are used as self-help and support. All groups are heavily influenced by past experiences of the members, both positive and negative. These past experiences can influence our perspective on the other people in the group.
Process & Product Dimensions
Some groups emphasize a product or outcome while others are more concerned with internal group processes that occur during the life of a group. Outcome AKA tasks & maintenance. Process AKA instrumental and expressive.
All groups operate on 2 levels
Task level: concerned with accomplishment of the concrete goals of the group.
Process dimension: concerned with the socio-emotional needs of the task force members. All groups must have elements of both to be able to work together.
A place the group would like to be. May be determined externally or internally.
May be voluntary or involuntary. Membership describes the quality of the relationship between and individual and a group. Level of membership may be formal/full, marginal, or aspiring. Members may have different experiences based on their context or their previous experiences.
Formal or Full Psychological Membership
We have invested ourselves significantly in the group and its goals: we feel a high degree of commitment to the group's goals and to other group members.
Not willing to invest themselves fully in the group. They may do what is necessary to remain a member but only what is minimally necessary.
One who is not formally a member of a group but wishes to be a member.
an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group. Constructive behaviors aimed at pursuing group goals.
3 styles of leadership by Lewin
Democratic, autocratic, and Laissez-faire
Focuses on group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and comradeship. Cooperation, common ground, consensus.
Domineering and hierarchical leader behavior
Uninvolved, non-directive approach to leading
Trait leadership (Traditional)
Leaders are born and possess the trait for leadership and these people are destined for greatness or influence well above the rest. You either have the trait or you don't.
Situational leadership (Traditional)
Leaders emerge out of the requirements of a particular situation. Either you find yourself in a situation requiring your expertise or you do not.
Positional Leadership (Traditional)
Leaders are created by the positions they hold. Either you end up in a leadership position or you do not.
Functional Leadership (alternative)
Leaders and followers are not so dichotomous or separate from each other. Leadership is simply behavior that assists a group to achieve its goals. Anyone in the group has the potential to be a leader; to do what is necessary to help a group reach its goal. It also implies that ones experience or expertise may call upon a member to lead. Leadership is mobile and flexible. Leaders are created by followers, not by traditional notions. Followers allow leaders to lead by accepting the leadership behavior of the member who leads.
Democracy or Democratic Decision Making Groups
Emphasizes several elements of unitary democracy: cooperation, common ground, relationship, and consensus. Democratic groups have power and they distribute that power among members equally. Inclusive and fully committed to democratic process. Operate through processes that ensure each member equal and adequate opportunities to speak and participate. Includes the element of listening.
Behavior that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation. A democratic groups is called a demos.
3 primary functions of democratic leadership behavior
1. Distributing responsibly: seeks to evoke involvement and participation of every member and in determining objectives. Seeks to spread responsibility rather than to concentrate it. Empowerment: requires a politically competent membership skilled at speaking, thinking, organizing, and many more tasks. Leaders avoid behaviors associated with "great man" model of leadership. Show genuine care and concern for members without being paternalistic. Seek to make members into leaders; seek to make themselves replaceable.
2. Metacommunication: communication about communication.
3. Aiding Deliberation: Through constructive participation, facilitation, and maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Through careful listening and respectful acknowledgment of others' views.
A form of metacommunication which is communication about the group's deliberations.
1. Involves keeping deliberation focused and on track.
2. Encouraging free discussion and broad participation, sometimes needing to discourage verbosity and draw out shy or marginalized voices.
3. Encouraging members to observe the norms and laws that the demos has adopted.
4. Maintaining a healthy emotional setting, positive member relationships, and a spirit of congeniality.
Distribution of leadership (Demos)
Should be distributed widely among the members. Makes it leaderful instead of leaderless. More than one person serves every leadership function, no individual does an inordinate amount of the leading and every group member performs leadership functions some of the time. It is often possible to rotate leadership functions among the membership so that individual members become capable of serving a variety of leaderhip functions.
Follower Responsibilities (Demos)
1. Must take responsibility for the well-being of the demos.
2. Must be accountable for their actions and decisions.
3. Are ultimately responsible for maintaining their autonomy (independence)
4. Recognize ways they can function as leaders.
5. Must be willing to work with those leading.
When is democratic leadership not appropriate?
When the problem is clearly defined and has an obvious technical solution (setting a broken bone)
When an executive or judge is needed to interpret a decision of the demos but the judge/executive must remain accountable to demos.
If groups is indifferent to a problem.
When the problem is not within the jurisdiction of the group.
Why do people reject democratic leadership?
Because democratic structure threatens their undemocratic authority.
Some have authoritarian values and have a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities.
Most people have, to some degree, an unconscious and conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away confusion.
Some people reject the very notion of leadership and do not believe in the necessity of leaders (anarchic)
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for persons in particular positions. Maybe formally assigned or informal and based on the interests and skills of individuals. Ex: Harmonizer: looks to keep the peace. Summarizer: skilled in restating the key elements from a discussion.
the disparity which an individual experiences among competing roles.
the group's common beliefs regarding appropriate behavior for members. Guides behaviors in their interactions with each other. Helps members know what to expect of others and what is expected of them.
Conformity and Deviance in Groups
The two factors important to consider in groups both as a leader/facilitator and as a group member.
Conformity: bringing one's behavior into alignment with a group's expectations.
Deviance: violation of the norms or rules of behavior.
the potential for individuals to behaviorally deviate from groups norms without being sanctioned. Positively disposed impressions a person acquires as a member of a group. In general, members will only allow members to act differently in a manner that is consistent with their high-status roles.
a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action...a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. Groups exert enormous pressures on their members to conform to the norms established by the group social system. Can be negative or positive.
Closed Leader Style
Could be classified as part of Groupthink.
Does not encourage member participation.
Does not state his/her opinions at the beginning of the meeting
Does not encourage divergent opinions from all group members
Does not emphasize the importance of reaching a wise decision.
An alternative to groupthink and a way to avoid groupthink. Includes:
Encouragement of divergent views
Open expression of concerns/ideas
Awareness of limitations/threats
Recognition of member's uniqueness
Discussion of collective doubts.
Methodical decision-making procedures
ensure that group adheres to a highly structured and systematic decision making process by promoting constructive criticism, nonconformity, and open-mindedness within the decision making group. Much of what happens in a group involves striking a balance between what is best for the individuals or group as a whole.
Effective use and management can help prevent groupthink. Productive conflict leads to group satisfaction with outcomes and a perception that the conflict has been useful. Productive conflict leads to an improved group climate and greater group cohesion and is likely to enhance the quality of the group's decision.
Members ability to make known to other members their own goals, interests, and reasons for participating in the group. Surface or hidden
Individual agendas that are able to be voiced for the group .
Agendas that are not brought to the surface. An individual goal he or she wishes to achieve that has not been brought to the surface. It is not necessarily damaging to the group but are often sources of confusion and interfere with the group progress.
Product focus roles or task roles
Initiator gets the ball rolling by proposing taks or goals. The information or opinion seeker requests facts and seeks for relevent information. The clarifyer or elaborator interprets and reflects back to the group ideas and suggestions to clear up confusion or offer alternatives. The summarizer pull together related ideas and restates the suggestion after it has been discussed and offers a decision or conclusion for the group to accept or reject. The consensus tester checks to see how much agreement there is to find out how close the group is to reaching a consensus.
Process focused roles or socioemotional roles
The expressor of group feelings attempts to feed back to the group his or her sense of the mood or affective climate. The harmonizer attempts to reconcile differences and reduce tensions by helping group members explore their differences. The compromiser is willing to try to reconcile their differences. The gatekeeper attempts to keep channels of communication open by helping bring all members into participation to help the group solve its problems. The standard setter suggests standards for the group to use and test group efforst against the standards of the group.
Individual focused roles
The aggressor tends to attack and belittle the positions and contributions of others, often sarcastically. The blocker suggests why a suggestion will not work and why his or her position is the only one worth attention. The self-confessor uses the other group members to ventilate about personal problems and to seek sympathy. The recognition seeker offers his or her personal response to a problem as examplary of what should be done in the current group situation. The dominator attempts to take over the proceedings of the group by interrupting others, by flattering other members, or by asserting his or her superior status. They cynic-humorist uses double-edged humor to remind the group of the pointless nature of its efforts. The special interst pleader attempts to sway the group to his or her individual preference by suggestion that his or her position is representative of an entire group of similarly minded people outside the confines of the group.
Sequential Stage Theory (Including the Tuckman and Jensen stages.
specify the "typical" order of the phase of group development. Are more prescribed and less flexible approaches to the study of groups. More aligned with traditional paradigm thinking. Tuckman and Jensen stagee contains 5 stages: 1. forming: a stage of uncertainty and some discomfort as new group members come together for the first time in a new situation. 2. Storming: occurs as group members raise questions and display resistance to the demands of the group. A period of conflict & rebellion. 3. Norming: the group's establishment of mechanisms for resolving conflict, working together as a group, and accomplishing the group purpose. Order is established. 4. Performing: the actual carrying out on the part of the group and its members of the tasks necessary to accomplish its purpose. 5. Adjourning: the termination phase of the group. It occurs as the tasks is completed and the group members make preparations to end their work together.
specify the issues that dominate group interaction which reoccur again and again. More emergent and fluid and are more compatible with alternative notions of groups.
Sequential Stage Johnson & Johnson stages
7 Stages 1. defining and structuring procedures and getting acquainted. 2. conforming to procedures and getting acquainted 3. recognizing mutuality and building trust. 4. rebelling and differentiating. 5. committing to and taking ownership for the goals, procedures, and other members. 6. functioning maturely and productively and 7. terminating.
1. Origin Stage: this is the pre-group state. Occurs as an idea for a group, and the sharing of that idea with others is transformed into the decision to create a group.
2. Formation: Includes people's feelings of uncertainty entering a group situation. Recognizes that people bring to a new group their past experiences-both postive and negative-with groups.
3. Power and Control: differences and conflicts emerge during this stage as people struggle to maintain their personal interests and values at the same time that they are asked to submit to the needs and purposes of the group. An informal structure begins to form, with members taking a variety of task and maintenance or socioemotional roles.
4. Intimacy: occurs when the socioemotional climate of the group is able to incorporate differences in personality and experiences of the members. Norms begin to take shape.
5. Maturation: Not all groups reach this stage. Groups that do experience a balance of effectively attending both the product and process dimensions of the group. You can express your feelings and be accepted. A big degree of cohesiveness and connectedness to other members, but conflict is still likely to occur but it is not counterproductive.
6. Separation: termination phase. May not be experienced by all group members at the same time in any final sense. Either time limit or members come and go fluently.
Group Formats for the Oppressed
Consciousness-Raising, Treatment, Social Action, Network & Support, and Skill Groups
Time limited groups that help members share their experiences and explore feelings about oppressed status. Helps members explore possible avenues to empowerment.
Groups that attempt to modify dysfunctional behavior, thinking, and feelings.
Social Action Groups
Groups directed to bringing changes in the larger environment in order to reduce oppression. Can also teach members valuable skills in working with others and can help members increase self esteem.
Network and Support Groups
Assist members in reducing feelings of isolation and in recognizing their strengths by helping members to connect with others to provide mutual support and to seek resources.
These groups have as goals development of members' empowerment skills. Skills learned and practice might include group leadership, social change, communication, and networking.
David outline of group dynamics in which race or color play an important part
Group composition, Culture and Communication, Trust, Status and Roles
Should group be racially homogenous or heterogenous? Workers should attempt racial balance in group composition when possible. Exceptions: groups composed of racially similar to enhance ethnic identity.
The practice of giving appearance of representation and access to resources or decision making without actually doing so.
Culture and Communication
Important to recognize that cultural communication styles are important influences in any group. Differences must be taken into account.
Issues of trust must receive special attention when dealing with groups of white and persons of color.
Status and Roles
There is often a tendency to attach statuses and roles within groups according to the patterns of minority/majority relations in the larger society.
Kanter's Kaleidoscope Thinking
twisting reality into new patterns and rearranging the pieces to create a new reality...having contact with people from a variety of perspectives in necessary for this thinking.
Diversity in Groups
Is complex and that both increased numbers of diverse members and quality of the interactions between members are equally important in reaping the potential benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce. More diversity can lead to more creativity.
3 Basic Sources of Racial Tensions
1. within individual group members
2. the nature of the group itself
3. the environment of the group
Tensions w/in individual members
Have general knowledge of how different populations tend to view power, authority, status, boundaries, expectations, etc...but not to overgeneralize. Be sensitive to the specific racial makeup; unequal numbers can lead to subgrouping and domination by members of one group. In addition, equal numbers may not be perceived as balanced by group members used to being a majority.
Tensions with the nature of the group itself
Group purpose may have different expectations. Norms that promote recognition and respect for differences, member equality, and open discussion can prevent members from being cautious, mistrustful, and guarded.
Tensions with environment
Consider climate of the society, events in the members' neighborhoods, the sponsoring organization's reputation, the way member's significant others view the group.
3 Levels of problems concerning racial issues within groups
1. Between members and leaders: If a leader is the only representative of a race, he/she may feel isolated. Leaders can be insensitive. Members can doubt leader's ability.
2. Between members: racist behaviors can lead to verbal or physical attacks. Feelings of isolation or under attack.
3. Between member and environment: Institutional racism in community and society. Can lead to unwillingness to participate in unfamiliar territory and can be perceived as unresponsive.
Groups and Gender
The presence of both men & women can heighten tension and may put women at a disadvantage. Even in cases of women having formal authority, male members may not accept it and report informally to her male superior.
6. Commonalities with Feminism
1. A common consciousness of the embedded details of victimization
2. A systematic deconstruction of negative and disadvantaging definitions of reality.
3. The process of naming and identifying the consequences of established structures and patterns.
4. Trust in the processes within the group to reconstruct a new reality and to provide the context within to test and practice new language, behaviors, expectations, and aspirations.
5. A belief in the power of the group, united to bring about desired changes in the context
6. A sense of community through the experience of reaching out and discovering allies and "same thinkers and doers" in the wider social context.
(4) Disability Etiquette for Groups
1. acknowledge that a disability exists
2. Speak directly to the person with a disability, even when a 3rd party is present.
3. Inappropriate to use common words such as look or see for individuals with a visual impairment or running or walking with people in wheelchairs.
4. Offer assistance but wait until it is accepted before providing it.
Rights of People with Disabilities in Group Work
3 parts: Places of public accommodation and telecommunication, Inclusion and accommodation, Ethics and accommodation.
4 common disabilities a group might encounter
Blindness, mobility impairment, deafness, speech impairment.
3 things needed for effective groups
1. Goal achievement
2. Maintenance of good working relationships among members.
3. Adaptation to changing environmental conditions that allow effectiveness to be maintained.
Johnson & Johnson 9 step model of effective groups
1. groups goals must be clearly understood, be relevant, highlight positive interdependence, and evoke every member a high level of commitment to their accomplishment.
2. group members must communicate their ideas and feelings clearly
3. Participation and leader must be distributed
4. appropriate decision making procedures must be used flexibly to match them with the needs of the situation.
5. conflicts should be encourage and managed constructively.
6. power and influence need to be approximately equal throughout groups. power based on expertise, ability, and access to information, not on authority.
7. group cohesion needs to be high.
8. problem solving adequacy should be high.
9. interpersonal effectiveness of members needs to be high.
Social Systems/Ecological Perspectives
Recognizes the internal/external contexts & interrelatedness of the group with its environment (think bidirectional). Change in one part of the group/system will impact others in the group. Holon-you are a whole & a part at the same time. Subsystems: system w/in a system (example: social work program is a part of the overall UTC education program).