56 terms

Chapter 9/10 US History Test

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The Alamo
6,000 Santa Anna troops arrived in San Antonio in 1836. 180 rebels held up in the Alamo, under LT. C. William B. Travis, the small force sought to delay Santa Anna and gave Houston's Army time to prep. Call for reinforcement unanswered. Texans held off Santa Anna for 13 days. final siege lasted 6 hours, Alamo defeated, 600 Santa Anna killed/wounded
San Jacinto
Santa Anna and Houston troops camped on San Jucinto River, Santa Anna didn't see Houston as a threat and allowed his men to sleep, Houston crept up and attacked. Hundreds killed, 700 f Santa Anna's troops taken captive, Texans only lost 9 men. Among captives was Santa Anna himself, forced to retreat troops ad sign a treaty.
Goliad
Mexican army overwhelmed Texan troops led by James W. Fannin. Fannin surrendered hoping they would simply be expelled from Texas but Santa Anna demanded execution so on March 27 a firing squad killed more than 300 men
Describe what happened when Texas requested to be annexed by the Us in 1836
Many northern members of congress opposed admitting Texas as a Slave State. To avoid North-South tension or risk war w/ Mexio, Jackson made no move toward annexation and on his last day as prez. he signed a resolution officially recognizing Texas as an independent nation
"Fifty-Four Forty of Fight"
Polk's supporters wanted all of Oregon to the 54*40' North latitude.
Bear Flag Republic
New name of region after the settlers declared on June 14th 1846 that California was independent of Mexico. Came to an end when U.S Navy occupied San Francisco and San Diego and took possession of California for the United States.
Zachary Taylor
General in war against Mexico, led first troops across Nueces.
Why did James K. Polk win presidency in 1844?
he promised to Annex Texas and the Oregon country and to buy California from Mexico. Appealed to North and South b/c it expanded country and maintained free-slave state balance. Republicans split into 2 parties b/c whigs were angered by 'support of annexation o Texas.
How was the "Oregon Question" resolved?
in June 1846 Great Britain and the US resolved issue. US got south of 49* North except for southern tip of Vancouver Island.
What were the issues that prompted war with Mexico?
Mexico said Texas's southern boarder was the Nueces River and the US said it was the Rio Grande. Mexico refused to meet with the envoy send by Polk.
Polks 3 pronged military stratagy
1. Taylor's troops would continue south crossing the Rio Grande.
2. Separate force to the NW would capture Sante Fe, an important trade city and then march West to take control of California with help from American Navy.
3. U.S. forces would advance on Mexico City and force Mexico to surrender.
U.S. Won
Terms of the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo 1848
-Mexico ceded 500,000 miles of territory to the U.S. (now CA, UT, NV, NM, AZ, CO and WY)
-Mexico accepted Rio Grande as Texas Boarder.
-United States paid Mexico $15 million and agreed to take over $3.25 million in debts Mexico owed to American citizens
Manifest Destiny
The idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land.
Kit Carson and Jim Bridges
Mountain men, made living by trapping beaver and selling furs to traders. At the same time they gained a thorough knowledge of the territory and the local Native Americans.
Donner Party
in 1846 a group of 87 over-landers. Named after after the two brothers who led them. Trapped by snow high in the Sierra Nevada. After 41 died of starvation, those still alive faced the choice of death of cannibalism and many resorted to cannibalism.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
1851, 8 Native groups agreed to specific geografic boundaries, while the US promised that these territories would belong to the Native Americans forever.
How did congress help squatters attain land in the west in 1830?
Preemption Act of 1830- guaranteed squatters the right to claim land before it was surveyed and the right to buy up to 160 acres for the governments minimum price of $1.25 per acre.
Who were the first Americans to arrive in the Oregon Country?
Missionaries
Why did the Mormons emigrate to the west?
Religious freedom. Bringham Young took his people west to escape religious persecution after the murder of Joseph Smith
Empresarios
Spanish word for "agents" or "contractors" Under the National Colonization Act, Mexico gave 26 empresarios large amounts of Texas land. In exchange, the empresarios promised to fill it with a certain number of settlers
Stephen F. Austin
Chosen as president of first convention in Texas in 1832
Sam Houston
Former governor of Tennessee and proven military leader took command of Texas.
Mexico colonization laws for Texas settlers
Cheap land, 10-year tax exemption.
Must become Mexican citizens, live under Mexican law and convert to Roman Catholicism.
Mexico's decision in 1830
to close it's boarders to further immigration by Americans and banned import of enslaved labor because they feared American plot to acquire Texas
Milmot Proviso
Proposed that in any territory the US gained from Mexico "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist."
Popular sovereignty
Each new territory should be allowed to decide if they wanted to permit slavery or not.
Free soil party
Anti slavery democrats from New York and Consccience whigs and the Liberty Party joined to form the free soil party. opposed slavery in the "free soil" of the western territories
Forty-niner
miners. 8,000 arrived in California between 1848 and 1849
Why did Zachary Taylor win the election if 1848?
He avoided the whole slavery issue.
Democratic vote in NY was split, giving it to Taylor
How did the war with Mexico and the gold rush affect the slavery issue in the US?
War with Mexico provided more land for there to be a slavery issue over.
Gold in California quickly led to application for statehood which couldn't be done without first deciding if it would be a free or slave state.
Terms of compromise of 1850
1. California join union as a free state but organized the rest of the Mexican cession w/o any restrictions on slavery
2. settled boarder between Texas and New Mexico but compensated Texas by having fed. gov. take on its debts
3. Outlawed slavery in D.C. but didn't outlaw slavery itself
4. Congress prohibited from interfering with domestic slave trade and would pass a new fugitive act to help southerns recover enslaved Africans who had fled north.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Sold 300,00 copies in 1852, it's first year. Presented African Americans as real people imprisoned in dreadful circumstances, evoking pity and outrage even in readers who were unmoved by rational arguments. Southerners tried to have it banned. Eventually sold millions of copied and considered by many historians to be one of the main causes of the Civil War.
Underground railroad and Harriet Tubman
Informal but well organized system that helped thousands of enslaved persons to escape. "conductors" transported runaways north in secret providing food and shelter along the way.
Harriet Tubman, herself a runaway slave, risked many dangerous trips into the south to guide enslaved persons along the underground railroad.
Grandsden Purchase
30,000 square mile strip of land that today is part of Arizona and New Mexico bought from Mexico for $10 milliom
Specifics of Fugitive Slave Act
-A person claiming that an African American had escaped fromm slavery had only to point out the person as a runaway to take him/her into custody.
- African Americans accused of being fugitives had no trial and and were not allowed to testify in court.
-Commissioner received $10 if he decided for the slaveholder but only $5 if he decided for the African American.
-Required Federal marshals to help slaveholders capture African american fugitives.
-required ordinary citizens to help capture runaways.
How transcontinental railroad intensified slavery issue
Depending on where it started from, more land needed to be purchased (Nebraska) and the south wouldn't allow another state unless it was a slave state. started road to war.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Passed in 1854, undid Missouri compromise. Nebraska intended to be a free territory and Kansas intended to be a slave territory.
What events led to "Bleeding Kansas"
-settlers from Missouri brought their slaves to Kansas
-northerners headed to new territory with rifles to ensure free majority
-Missouri senator called men from his state to storm into Kansas
-thousands of armed Missouri men voted illegally to help elect pro slavery legislature.
-2 governments in Kansas
-bootled ruffians attacked Lawrence in sighting a territorial Civil War. 200 people died and $2million worth of property was destroyed.
Happened on the floor of the Senate in 1856
Caning of Charles Sumner
Expansion of the US (Region,date, how acquired)
US-1783-Treaty of Paris/Revolutionary War
Louisiana Purchase-1803-Purchased from France
British cession- 1818- Convention of 1818 w/ GB
Florida- 1819- Adams-onis treaty w/ Spain
Texas- 1845- Annexed by Congress
Oregon Country- 1846- Treaty w/ GB
Mexican cession- 1848- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo w/ Mexico
Gadsden Purchase- 1853- Bought from Mexico
Republican Party
Composed of Northern Whigs and Free-spoilers, opposed further expansion of slavery. Established n 1854.
Strong leaders = Martin VanBuren, Charles Francis Adams
James Buchanon
democratic nominee for 1856 election. Served on Congress for 20 years andd had been an ambassador to Russia and Great Britain. Won and became prez
Lecompton Constitution
1857 legalized slavery in the union b/c anti slavery refused to attend the convention. Buchanan accepted it and Kansas applied for statehood as a slave state.
Settlers in Kansas voted in 1858 to reject the lecompton constiution so Kansas was a free state
"the Little Giant"
nickname for Stephan A. Douglas because he was short and stocky but regularly drew large crowds.
Dred Scott
-Dred Scott was an enslaved man whose Missouri slaveholder had taken him to live in a free territory. Assisted by abolitionists, Scott sued to end his slavery arguing that he the time he had spent in a free territory meant he was free. Supreme Court rules against him because he was not a citizen and therefore could not sue.
-Also said that the act of congress prohibiting slavery was unconstitutional because slaves are property and the constitution protects property.
-Southerners said Northerners had to obey the decision if they wanted the south the remain in the union
Lincolns view on slavery
Not an abolitionist but viewed slavery as morally wrong and opposed its spread into western territories.
Lincoln-Douglas Senate race in Illinois in 1858
Douglas won
Lincoln established a national reputation for himself as a man of clear, insightful thinker who could argue with force and eloquence. Also made clear the principles of the Republican party.
John Brown and Harper's Ferry, Virginia
Fervent abolitionist who believed God had raised him up ton purpose to break the jaws of the wicked.
Developed a plan to seize federal arsenal @ Harper's Ferry, free and arm enslaved people of the neighborhood and begin a rebellion against slaveholders. Lasted 36 hours before Brown's capture.
Americans reaction to John Browns Rebellion
-Northerners viewed him as a martyr in a noble cause
-Strengthened abolitionist feelings in the north
-offered proof to southerners that northerners were actively plotting the murder of slaveholders, more strict and harsh with slaves.
Confederacy
New nation declared in February 1861. Their convention drafted a constitution but declared each state independent and guaranteed existence of slavery and limited presidency to 1 term of 6 years.
Jefferson Davis
New president of Confederacy; Mississippi senator
"The south is determined to make all who oppose her smell southern powder and feel southern steel"
Fort Sumpter
April 1861- Lincoln to resupply fort
Davis took fort before supplies arrived
Confederate leaders demanded surrender; Anderson didn't surrender, rebels destroyed fort, nobody hurt, war starts.
Republican platform going into 1860 election and why Lincoln won
-Reaffirmed southern states rights to preserve slavery
-supported higher tariffs
-New homestead lawns for western settlers
-Transcontinental railroad

Lincoln won b/c democratic vote was split between Douglas and Breckinridge
What states had seceded by June 1861
-South Carolina
-Mississippi
-Florida
-Alabama
-Georgia
-Louisiana
-Texas
What triggered secession of states?
Lincoln winning presidential election
How did Lincoln keep Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri from seceding
Martial law in Baltimore
Imprisoned anyone supporting secession
Kentucky divided; declared neutral; Lincoln left them alone as long as the south would too
Im Missouri Gov Jackson led secessionists but convention voted to stay. Lincoln sent Federal forces