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36 terms

Vocab 1- accounting

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Accounting
The process of recording, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting financial (money-related) activities to permit individuals and organizations to make informed judgments and decisions.
Accounting equation
The equation that expresses the relationship between the accounting elements in a simple mathematical form: Assets = Liabilities + owner's equity.
Accounting Period
A period that is typically one year; however, it can be any length of time for which accounting records are maintained, often a month.
Accounts payable
The liability that results from purchasing goods or services on credit.
Accounts recievable
The asset arising from selling goods or services on credit to customers.
Assets
Items with money value that are owned by a business.
Balance Sheet
A listing of a firm's assets, liabilities, and owner's equity at a specific point in time. Other terms used to describe the balance sheet are statement of financial position and position statement.
Business
An organization that operates with the objective of earning a profit.
Business entity concept
The principle that states that, for accounting purposes, a business is a distinct economic entity or unit that is seperate from its owner and from any other business.
Cash
The asset Cash includes currency (paper money), coins, checks, and money orders made payable to the business.
Corporation
A form of business organization that is owned by stockholders.
Cost principle
The principle that states that, when purchased, all assets are recorded at their actual cost regardless of market value.
Creditor
A business or person whome a debt is owed.
Dual effect
The principle that states that all business trasactions are recorded as having at least two effects on the basic accounting elements.
Equipment
The physical assets needed by a business in order to operate.
Expenses
The costs of operationg a business. Unlike the cost of an asset, the cost of an expense does not provide a future benefit to the business. Therefore, its effect is a reducion in owner's equity.
Financial Statements
Summaries of financial activities.
Income Statement
A summary of a business's revenue and expenses for a specific period of time, such as a month or a year. Other terms used to describe the income statement are earnings statement, operationg statement, statement of operations, and profit and loss statement.
Liabilities
Debts owed by the business.
Manufactoring Business
A business that produces a product to sell to its customers.
Merchandising business
A business that purchases goods produced by others and then sells them to customers to earn a profit.
Net income
Occurs when revenue earned during an accounting period exceeds the expenses of the same period
Net loss
occurs when expenses exceed revenue during an accounting period.
Note payable
A formal written promise to pay a specified amount at a definite future date.
Owner's equity
The excess of assets over liabilities (also called capital, proprietorship , and net worth)
Partnership
A business co-owned by two or more persons.
Realization principle
the principle that states that revenue should be recorded when it is earned, even though cash may not be collected until later.
Revenue
Income earned from carrying out the activities of a firm.
Service Business
A business that performs services for customers to earn a profit.
Shift in assets
occurs when one asset is exchanged for another asset, such as when supplies are purchased for cash.
Sole proprietorship
a business owned by one person
statement of owner's equity
a summary of the changes that have occured in owner's equity during a specific period of time, such as a month or a year. Another term used to describe the statement of owner's equity is capital statement.
Supplies
short-term physical assets needed to operate a business.
Tagible
All physical assets used by a business are tangible
transaction
any activity that changes the value of a firm's assets, liabilites, or owner's equity.
Withdrawal
the removal of business assets for the owner's personal use.