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32 terms

Anatomy exam 1. Loesser (tissues)

4 types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial layer (7)
covers all surfaces
nutrition by diffusion
reproduces readily
protective by dense packing
secretion, excretion, absorption, sensory reception
composed entirely of cells
types of epithelial tissue (3 simple)
simple squamous
simple cuboidal
simple columnar
types of epithelial tissue (5 stratified)
stratified cuboidal- 3 or 4 layers thick
stratified squamous
stratified columnar
transitional- puffs out
pseudostratified columnar- has cilia
simple squamous location/function
location: mesothelia lining ventral body cavities, endothelia lining heart and blood vessels, kidney tubules, inner lining of cornea, alveoli
function: friction, permiability, absorption and secretion
stratified squamous location/function
location: skin, mouth, throat, rectum, anus, vagina
function: protects against abrasion, pathogens, chemical attacks
simple cuboidal location/function
location: glands, ducts, kidney tubules, thyroid
function: limited protection, secretion, absorption
stratified cuboidal location/function
location: some ducts (rare)
function: protection, secretion, absorption
transitional location/function
location: urinary bladder
function: stretching
simple columnar location/function
location: stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, collecting ducts of kidneys
function: protect, secrete, absorb
pseudostratified columnar location/function
location: nasal cavity, bronchii, male repro. trachea
function: protection, secretion
stratified columnar location/function
location: pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary ducts, urethra
function: protection
3 connective tissue components
specialized cells
extracellular fibers
ground substance
CT specialized cells
Resident cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, adipose cells
wandering cells: white blood cells, mast cells
CT extracellular fibers
produced by fibroblasts
elastic- makes things stretchy
reticular- smaller branched cells
CT ground matrix
fibers and ground substance
CT functional characteristics (7)
most abundant by weight
binds with ligaments and cartilage
support to bones
stores fat
bones produce blood cells
WBC's fight infection
types of Connective tissue (7)
loose (areolar)
dense (regular & irregular)
CT: blood (hint: types)
plasma (liquid portion of blood), RBC, WBC, platelets
CT: loose (areolar) location/function
location: deep in dermis covered by epith. lining of digestive, respiratory and urinary. between lungs, around blood vessels, nerves, and joints
function: binds skin to underlying organs, fills spaces
mostly fibroblasts, vascular
CT: adipose (fat) location/function
location: beneath skin
function: cushion, stores energy
CT: elastic location/function
location: between vertebrae, ligaments supporting pelvis, walls of blood vessels
function: stabalize position of spine and pelvis, cushions shocks, allow expansion/recoil
CT: dense (regular & irregular)
dense, closely pack fibers, few cells
poor blood supply
tendons & ligaments (regular)
coverings & capsules (irregular)
CT: dense irregular location/function
location: capsules of visceral organs, dermis of skin, nerve and muscle sheaths
function: provides strength to resist force applied from many directions, prevents overexpansion of organs (bladder)
CT: dense regular location/function
location: between skeleton and skeletal muscles, between bones (ligaments), covering skeletal muscles
function: firm attachment, reduce friction between muscles, stabalizes relative position of bones
CT: Bone (6)
lots of collagen and minerals
produces blood cells
stores inorganic salts
osteocytes and canniculi
great blood supply
CT: reticular + location/function
location: liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow
function: forms stroma of many organs
stroma: support structure inside organ that support cells

filled with fibroblasts, macrophages, reticular fibers
muscle tissue characteristics
cells are contractile
causes body parts to move
3 types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle
voluntary movement
muscle cell = fibers
multinucleated cells
satelite cells- grow new skeletal muscle
smooth muscle
single nucleus - no fusion of cells
moves food, empties bladder, constrict blood vessels
has actin and myosin
cardiac muscle
single nucleus- no fusion of cells
intercalated discs
nervous tissue
found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
neuroglia - supporting cell (non-exciteable)
sensitive to surrounding, transmits impulses