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PSY459 CMU Chapter 1
Terms in this set (90)
A SUBJECTIVE feeling of tension, apprehension, and worry, set off by a particular combination of cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavior cues.
It is generally thought to differ from fear in that it is not tied to a realistic threat from the environment (Simpson, 1985)
- Difficult to distinguish from stress
- Same physical response as in stress
- Cause is not objective... generally considered to be entirely subjective
The simultaneous existence of mutually exclusive or opposite desires or response tendencies. It may be intra-psychic, interpersonal, or mental (Simple, 1985)
- Approach/approach: Conflict between two desirable objects/goals
- Avoidance/avoidance: Conflict between two undesirable objects/goals
- Approach/avoidance: Dealing with an object with desirable and undesirable aspects
Interference with behavior directed toward a particular goal (Alcock, 1998).
- Increases likelihood of aggressive behavior
- Can be experienced emotionally, physiologically, behaviorally, and cognitively
- Most healthy people return to their homeostatic baseline after a stressful experience
- Fight or flight
- General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The body's physiological response to fight a stressful or flee from it
Fight or flight
Selye's (1956) three stage model of chronic stress
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- Alarm stage
- Resistance stage: Body deals with stressors until its natural resources begin to deplete
- Exhaustion stage: Body's systems break down and illness or premature death ensure
States of Stress
Selye's two types of stress
Distress (negative) and eustress (positive)
- Scale that measures life changing events, developed by Holmes and Race (1967)
- Higher life change scores for 6 months to a year mean a person has a greater chance of developing illness
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
- Lazarus (1984) developed this scale
- Combines measures for hassles (irritants and pressures) and uplifts (positive encounters and experiences)
Hazards and Uplifts Scale
Make a judgment about the relative significance of the even and evaluate as a threat of challenge
- Appraisal patterns are linked to particular emotional responses (ex. experiencing a demeaning offense results in anger)
- Lazarus identified 15 of these appraisals, called core rational themes
The constellation of cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral reactions the organism experiences as it interacts with perceived threats and challenges
Broad symptoms of stress
- Depressive mood
- Feelings of uncertainty
- Feelings of loss of control
- Loss of morale
- Low job satisfaction
Emotive stress symptoms
- Loss of motivation
- Loss of concentration/attention
- Loss of ability to finish tasks
- Poor memory
- Misperceptions and misattributions
- Reduced capacity for decision making
- Poor problem solving capacity
- Self pity
- Loss of hope
- Mental "escape"
Cognitive stress symptoms
- Fatigue and physical weakness
- Migraine and tension headaches
- Muscular tremors and spasm
- Exacerbation of atherosclerosis
- Hyperventilation (rapid, shallow breathing)
- Bruxism (grinding teeth)
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Cardiac arrhythmias
Physical stress symptoms
A newer model of health that views it as a product of biological, psychological, and social influences
- Continuum of the very ill to super well
- Mind and body are an interactive whole
- Sees mind and body as separate (mind/body dualism)
Intrapsychic conflict can lead to somatic conversions expressed as physical symptoms
- Inspired by Freud, was one of the first areas to challenge mind/body dualism
- Social and psychological factors can also cause illness
- Individual more responsible for won health in bio psychosocial model
Applies elements of the behavioral sciences to illness prevention and treatment
- A multidisciplinary field that helps people maximize their health goals
Used scientific and professional knowledge of psychology to promote and maintain health and treat illness
A global approach to health that include stress management, healthy living (nutrition and exercise), and activities for personal growth
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
Health as defined by WHO
Emphasizes what people do right to maintain health rather than risk and pathogenic factors
- Focus in on maintaining health in the midst of entropic forces
- Stressors cause tension and can move people along the health continuum depending on how they are managed
- We must use our resources (GRRs) to adapt
Antonovsky's Salutogenic Model
- Include social environment, personal reserves, and physical environment
- GRRs shape our worldview, or sense of coherence (SOC)
- SOC composed of three factors that are influenced by our life experiences
Generalized Resistance Resources (GRRs)
Sense of Coherence (SOC) Factors
The degree to which we can make a cognitive sense of stimuli we perceive.
Our ability to access internal and external coping resources and use them when we need them.
Our ability to emotionally make sense of demands and to perceive them as challenges rather than burdens.
______________ can produce detrimental physical and psychological changes: worry, inability to make decisions, anxiety, depression, etc.
______________ reactions to stress can include increased heart rate, headaches, and frequent illnesses
There is an __________ _________ or mid-level physiological arousal, neither under-stimulated or over-stimulated
According to the Yerkes-Dodson curve, optimal ___________ occurs when we are at the midlevel of diffuse __________ arousal and excitement. It is like the Goldilocks theory of not wanting her bowl of porridge to be "too hot" or "too cold" but "just right".
Lifestyle related variable found to have impact on ______________.
_____________ increases chances of living long; smoking, diabetes, and obesity lowers it
Stress can ________ healthy decisions.
A vicious ________ of stress contributing to poor health and poor health contributing to stress can begin.
Exercise is good for health and ______________ stress.
Stressors evoke ___________________ reactions in different systems of the body.
Enervates the organ systems of the body
Autonomic nervous system
Responsible for the arousal response of organ systems
Sympathetic nervous system
Norepinephrine and __________ primes the body to fight or flee from a stressor.
Food stores converted into ___________ for energy.
Selye described ____________ changes as stress reactions.
Common patterns to a host of different stressors.
When first subjected to a __________, organism activates fight-or-flight response.
Activation brings on _________ stage.
With repeated stress comes the ____________ stage.
The coast the organisms pay when subjected to chronic stressors. Chronic stress begins to wear down the systems. In exhaustion stage, repeated stress leads to illness and possibly death.
- Illness results from environmental stressors having an adverse impact on an individual's most vulnerable biological systems.
- Similar to GAS, it suggests that illness may result from interaction of biology and environment. Therefore, each case is unique.
Chronic stress leads to an increasing allostatic load that over time can move an individual through all three stages of the GAS.
Stages of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Stages of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Limitations of GAS:
- Does not address ____________ psychological processes and how they can affect appraisal
Limitations of GAS:
- Selye claimed ____________: all stressors should have the same effects. However, this is not the case.
Limitations of GAS:
- Overly general in explaining ________ to everyday stressors.
Primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, reappraisal
Lazarus's Appraisal and Coping Model
Personal evaluates present and potential harm or loss from even
Person evaluates coping resources; if not enough resources are available threat is experienced
Person may change meaning of event to minimize stress reactions
______________ can be viewed as challenges that help us to grow.
A field that studies what goes right with us rather than what goes wrong.
Studies areas of positive trait characteristics, positive subjective experiences, and positive institutions.
Focus is on the good life: a fulfilling life
To live the good life, we must build on good feelings and our sense of _________________.
Managing stress only keeps one's life in a state of _____________.
Stress models evolved from ___________ to cognitive.
______________'s model focused on fight-flight response.
Selye's _________ model showed how stress adversely effects organism.
______________'s model focused on constant appraisal and subjective experience of stress.
Biopsychosocial model is health on __________________.
_________________ views stressors an omnipresent and possibly health promoting.
GRRs shape our ___________.
Health and __________ effected by cognitive, emotional, psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes.
Overall healthy lifestyle can lead to ______________.
_________________ psychology focuses on the good life and positive emotions and well-being.
The biological self-regulation process that enables an organism to adapt to life's demands.
Small irritants and presses experienced in everyday life.
Positive encounters and experiences.
A traditional model of health that assumes health is primarily a product of biological factors.
A positive physical, mental, and social state well-being.
One's worldview according to Antonovsky that is comprised of the three integrated factors of comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness.
Sense of coherence (SOC)
The heart increases its rate of contraction and blood pressure spikes to circulate blood carrying oxygen and energy to the brain and large muscles of them body in preparation for action.
The large muscles in the body tense as they also ready for action.
The digestive process slows so that GI system blood that had been collecting energy can be quickly routed to the brain and muscles. Digesting food is not very adaptive when one is about to eaten.
Gastrointestinal (GI) system
Breathing rate increases to oxygenate the large muscles of the body in preparation for action.
The skin perspires to cool down the body and prevent overheating during action.
Hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol are secreted to stimulate the release of energy for action.
Eyes dilate as vision and hearing become more acute to perceive the threat more acutely.
The study of the relationship between psychological processes and endocrine function.
Effectively using resources and strategies to deal with potentially harmful or stressful internal or external demands.
The belief in one's abilities and skills to bring about a successful outcome in a given situation.
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