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GACS lclab World History - Unit 3 - The Greeks and Hellenistic Age-Class Notes
Greece is located at the end of the ______________ and included many islands.
Greece is surrounded by the ________________ which provided the ability for great trading.
The many _____________forced the Greeks to develop separate communities.
hot summers and mild winters
True about the climate of Greece
short summers and severe winters
False about the climate of Greece
fishers and sailors
Because Greece has such a long coastline, most people were ____________________.
Greek civilization began in the island of _____________ and lived a a civilized lifestyle before 1500 BC.
Early Greeks were known as _______________.
legendary first king of Crete
Capital city of on the island of Crete
Minoans created a system of __________________.
Knossos was famous for the ancient ruins of paintings on wet plasted known as__________________
Minoans were excellent sailors and had the first ____________.
bull, bull leaping
Minoans worshipped the ___________ and considered ________________entertainment.
mythical half-man and half-bull
oldest city on Greek mainland
Minoans were conquested around 1500 by Greek warriors from the mainland known as ___________________.
After the Mycenaens conquered the Cretan's they adopted a _____________culture.
Illiad and Odyssey
epic poems written by later Greeks that helped us learn alot about the Mycenaean's
legendary ancient Greek blind poet, the author of the epic poems the Illian and the Odyssey; his stories were the first ever writtend down
epic poem about kidnapping of a Greek princess, Helen of Troy, by a Trojan prince, Paris - started a 10-year war between the Greeks and the Trojans
describes the journey of one of the victorious Greek generals who spends the next 10 years trying to get home
In 1200 BC the Mycenaean's were conquered by Greeks from the north called the ________________.
When the Dorians took over, this period in Greece became known as the ______________because they could not read or write
Around 750 BC the ____________introduced the alphabet to the Dorians
Around the time the Dorians took over Greece, __________ were introduced and began to dominate.
the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 1,000 BC to 700 BC
the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 700 BC where the nobility controlled the city-states; ruled by upper class land owners.
From 650 BC to 500BC the Greek government for city-states ruled by _______________ - individuals who took over by force; sometimes they were good, sometimes harsh
After 500 BC, many city-states turned to popular government of _______________ or "rule by the people"
tyrant of Athens famous for cruelty
Greek were also known as ____________a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions
Greek was also known as ____________.
means "like the Greeks"
Anyone who did not speak Greek, was considered a _______________.
city-state in Greece; like a separate country; had own government
plays written by Greeks in which the main characters struggle against fate
each city-state had an ________________ where their fort was; it was a hill with public buildings
conquered and forced to be Sparta slaves
Sparta had helots but tended to avoid a ___________ style of living
had an elected assembly, two ceremonial kings but government was controlled by ephors
Sparta had an elected assembly and two ceremonial kings but government was ruled by overseers called _____________.
most populated city with over 300,000 citizens
___________outnumbered citizens in Sparta
irrational fear of foreigners; because of this, Spartans did not travel and visitors were not welcome
Spartan men were expected to be part of the efficient ______________and ate with the other men in mess halls instead of with their families
unhealthy babies were left to die of __________________.
________________of boys began at the age of 7 and men served from 20-60
True about Spartan women
Spartan women had more freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be equally tough as men
False about Spartan women
Spartan women had less freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be weaker than men
__________________took control of the city when the men were gone.
In Sparta _______________was sacrificed for the state
betrayal or treason
_________________was unheard of among Spartans
True about Spartans
They produced no great literature, art or science because everything was focused on military control
False about Spartans
They produced great literature, art and science
expressing much in few words; original meaning of this word referred to the people of Sparta
A Greek historian who said, "the most extraordinary thing of all is that despite the universal praise for Sparta's society, not a single city is willing to copy it."
True about the remains of Sparta
Very little remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today
False about the remains of Sparta
There are many remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today
was a city of trade and had much contact with other people.
True about Athens women
Athens women could have citizenship but could not participate in government or vote; were expected to be quiet and domestic.
False about Athens women
Athens women could not have citizenship but could participate in government or vote.
______________were free residence and were living and making money but could not participate in government.
By 510, all men over the age of 20 were members of the _______________.
female, slave or foreigner
Athens were very democratic unless you were a _________, ______________ or ________________.
All _____________voted on all issues in Athens.
Athens held trial by _____________.
Athens was a _____________democracy rather than an __________democracy.
Athens had a military primarily for ____________rather than a way of life, as in Sparta.
Athens was more of a _____________power than Sparta.
Athenians loved to _________________.
Today Athens is the capital of ________________.
The Greeks fought the ______________ and then themselves.
Cyrus the Great
In 546 BC, _____________________built a began the Persian empire by defeating the _____________.
The Greek colonies on the coast of ______________ refused to pay tribute or taxes to Persian so they rebelled.
The _______________assisted Ionia in their rebellion against Persian.
_______________wanted to punish Athens, so he sent a massive army to Greece in 490 BC.
Battle of Marathon
A major battle outside of Athens.
part-time, citizen soldiers
Athenian army consisted primarily of ________________ who were protecting their home states.
After just a few hours of the Battle of Marathon, 6,400 ___________had died and only 192 Athenians.
Ran 26 miles back to Athens with the good news of the Athens win over the Persians
__________became the ruler of Persia after his father, Darius died
Battle of Thermopyle
In the ________________ 300 Spartans and 6,000 allies met 200,000 Persians
All the ________________died in the Battle of Thermopyle but so did 20,000 Persians.
Xeres finally got to Athens and found that the Athenians had moved to ________________.
In 480 BC the _________________won the war against the Persians and become the superpower of Greece
Battle of Salamis
The _____________________started the Golden Age of Athens.
The greatest Athenian leader of all time. Elected general for 16 years and led the city for 30 years
Athens was very ______________under the leadership of Pericles
Athens did not treat other cities as ________________ which resulted in another war.
War between Athens and Sparta that lasted 27 years.
In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great navy.
In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great army.
Sparta laid seige to Athens and a great ____________struck during the war.
In 404 BC __________________defeated Athens with some assistance from the Persian.
Sparta won the war, but could not defend itself from other Greek city-states and eventually ________________would rule Greece.
Originally a sculpture but later become a teacher
Socrates would rather be called a ________________ than a sophits because he considered them deceitful, proud and "user of words"
Socrates believed in people thinking for themselves and using reason & logic to discover __________________.
_______________believed in relative truth - that truth can change depending on the the situation.
taught by using questions - Jesus later would teach the same way
famous saying of Socrates
Socrates criticized ________________because he believed the untrained were elected.
Socrates was put to trial because he was accused of _______________ and corrupting youth.
Socrates was found guilty in his trial and chose to die by __________rather than be exiled.
scientist and philosopher who was a student of Socrates
Plato recorded the thoughts of Socrates in ______________form.
Plato's most famous work about an ideal government run by a trained class of philosopher kings
Metaphor of the Cave
One of the most famous stories of philosphy in the Western world; found in The Republic
Plato believed you could not know the truth in the real world, but in the world of _______________.
scientist, philospher and student of Plato
Aristotle believed in finding truth in the ______________.
plants and animals
Aristotle classified _________________________.
Aristotle wrote about logics and _________________.
Artistotle was considered an authority of life by the _______________ and was called the "Master".
Truth about the characteristics of Greek religion
Greek religion had no moral focus or salvation. There were no commandments or holy book.
False about the characteristics of Greek religion
Greek religion had a lot of moral focus and believed in salvation. Greeks had their own commandments and holy book.
True about Greek afterlife
Greeks were not concerned very much about life after death
False about Greek afterlife
Greeks were very concerned about life after death
Greek gods like on __________________.
Father of the gods; Roman name was Jupiter
wife of Zeus and protector of women
god of the sea
god of the deaad
goddess of wisdom and warrior
goddess of love and beauty
god of the sun, music and poetry
god of wine
The ________________were held in honor of Zeus and were held every four years and lasted five days
The first Olympiad was held in this year
Women had their own Olylmpics called _______________.
Doric, Ionic & Corinthian
columns used in Greek architecture
simple and favorite column used in Greek architecture
column in Greek architecture that has "eyes" or scrolls
most elaborate column in Greek architecture; leafy design
best example of Greek architecture; temple for the goddess Athena
________________were built in hill sides and were shaped as half circles
most of what we know about Greek painting and sculpting comes from descriptions and ___________copies
Best preserved Greek art painting can be found on _______________.
known for his great statues of Athena and Zues
Temple of Olympia
location of Phidias' statue of Zeus and and considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World
___________________glorified the gods and humanity.
__________________was idealized - no blemishes
________________represented things such as strength, intelligence, beauty, grace and courage.
Greeks showed pride in their ______________________ through their art.
Greeks expressed _________________of harmony, balance and order combined with beauty and usefulness.
Greeks were the first to __________________.
True about Greek plays
Only men were allowed to be actors and participate in plays.
False about Greek plays
Both men and women were allowed to be actors and participate in plays.
Greeks excelled in writing _________________, a play in which the main character struggles with life.
pride or overconfidence by Greek actors who considered themselves to have the same knowledge or abilities of the gods.
perfect example of a tragedy and most famous pla during Greek time period.
Greeks also wrote _____________, plays that mocked people and ideas
greatest Greek comedic playwright
famous Greek play which poked fun at Socrates and other important Greek people
________________was an important occupation for Athenians.
Athenians _______________high quality vases and ____________them with trade ships all over the Mediterranean.
True about Athenian family life
Athenian's family life consisted of arranged marriages, women had few rights and it was a very patriarchal society.
False about Athenian family life
Athenian's family like had very few arranged marriages, women had the most rights and it was a very matriarchal society.
slave tutor who educated wealthy boys
True about Athenian schooling
only the boys were educated in literature classics, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric and arithmatic
False about Athenian schooling
both boys and girls were educated in literature classics, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric and arithmatic
the most widely spoken language of the Mediterranean; the New Testament was written in this language
Philip of Macedon
Father of Alexander the Great
north of Greece and were related to the Greeks
Macedonia had a ________________of 10,000 men who were regularly paid
The _____________________ also had an infantry of foot soldiers and calvary of mounted men.
organized part of the infantry with 16 rows of tightly spaced soliders with lances
Philip of Macedon
unified his own people and conquered the Greek city-states by 338 BC
Alexander the Great
took over Macedon at the age of 20 after his father was assassinated at his daughter's wedding by an ex-bodyguard
Alexander the Great
_________________tutored by Aristotle, helped his father conquer the Greeks and was a very brave and skillful general
means "like the Greeks"
Alexander the Great wanted a Hellenist empire stretching to ______________.
In 334 BC Alexander the Great invaded the ________________.
Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia
Alexander the Great had conquered __________________by 331 BC
traditional story Alexander the Great heard after his first victory which said it could only be undone by the ruler of the world; Alexander the Great cut it in half
destroyed _______________armies and cpatured the wife and daugther of this countries king.
Alexander the Great liberated this country; many cities named after him
Alexander the Great made this city his capitol.
Alexander the Great marched his army all the way to ______________ but after 10 years, his men rebelled and turned around
Alexander the Great returned to Babylon and married _____________, a Persian princess to show cultural unity
cholera or malaria
Alexander died of this at the age of 33
_________________was fought over by generals
most famous general who took over Egypt; this dynast lasted for 200 years
_______________was the last Ptolomy and Egypt became a Roman province after this death
to become Greek-like and prosper
__________________are mentioned int eh New Testament
Became prosperous-had over 1 million people and a library with 750,000 papyrus scrolls
cynics, stoics, epicureans
three Hellenistic philosophies
sought only virtue, rejected pain and pleasure
most famous cynic
believed reason directed the world; thought you should be indifferent to pain & pleasure
founded by Zeno
founded one of the Hellenistic philosophies which focused on pleasure
motto was "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die.
Greek mathematician often referred to as the "Father of Geometry"
calculated the value of pie (ratio of circumference of a cirlce to its diameter)
believed Earth and planets moved around the sun
theory that the earth and planets moved around the sun
calculated the circumference of the world within 50 miles of the true circumference
Greeks did not have much practical use for the knowledge because ___________did all the work.