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GACS lclab World History - Unit 3 - The Greeks and Hellenistic Age-Class Notes

GACS lclab World History - Unit 3 - The Greeks and Hellenistic Age-Class Notes
STUDY
PLAY
Balkan Peninsula
Greece is located at the end of the ______________ and included many islands.
Mediterranean Sea
Greece is surrounded by the ________________ which provided the ability for great trading.
mountains
The many _____________forced the Greeks to develop separate communities.
hot summers and mild winters
True about the climate of Greece
short summers and severe winters
False about the climate of Greece
fishers and sailors
Because Greece has such a long coastline, most people were ____________________.
Crete
Greek civilization began in the island of _____________ and lived a a civilized lifestyle before 1500 BC.
Minoans
Early Greeks were known as _______________.
Minos
legendary first king of Crete
Knossos
Capital city of on the island of Crete
writing
Minoans created a system of __________________.
frescoes
Knossos was famous for the ancient ruins of paintings on wet plasted known as__________________
Navy
Minoans were excellent sailors and had the first ____________.
bull, bull leaping
Minoans worshipped the ___________ and considered ________________entertainment.
Minotaur
mythical half-man and half-bull
Mycenae
oldest city on Greek mainland
Mycenaens
Minoans were conquested around 1500 by Greek warriors from the mainland known as ___________________.
Cretan
After the Mycenaens conquered the Cretan's they adopted a _____________culture.
Illiad and Odyssey
epic poems written by later Greeks that helped us learn alot about the Mycenaean's
Homer
legendary ancient Greek blind poet, the author of the epic poems the Illian and the Odyssey; his stories were the first ever writtend down
Iliad
epic poem about kidnapping of a Greek princess, Helen of Troy, by a Trojan prince, Paris - started a 10-year war between the Greeks and the Trojans
Odyssey
describes the journey of one of the victorious Greek generals who spends the next 10 years trying to get home
Dorians
In 1200 BC the Mycenaean's were conquered by Greeks from the north called the ________________.
Dark Ages
When the Dorians took over, this period in Greece became known as the ______________because they could not read or write
Phoenicians
Around 750 BC the ____________introduced the alphabet to the Dorians
city-states
Around the time the Dorians took over Greece, __________ were introduced and began to dominate.
monarchy
the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 1,000 BC to 700 BC
aristocracy
the Greek government for city-states was a _______________ from 700 BC where the nobility controlled the city-states; ruled by upper class land owners.
tyranny
From 650 BC to 500BC the Greek government for city-states ruled by _______________ - individuals who took over by force; sometimes they were good, sometimes harsh
democracy
After 500 BC, many city-states turned to popular government of _______________ or "rule by the people"
Dracos
tyrant of Athens famous for cruelty
Hellene
Greek were also known as ____________a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions
Hellas
Greek was also known as ____________.
Hellenistic
means "like the Greeks"
barbarian
Anyone who did not speak Greek, was considered a _______________.
polis
city-state in Greece; like a separate country; had own government
tragedy
plays written by Greeks in which the main characters struggle against fate
acropolis
each city-state had an ________________ where their fort was; it was a hill with public buildings
helots
conquered and forced to be Sparta slaves
luxurious
Sparta had helots but tended to avoid a ___________ style of living
Sparta
had an elected assembly, two ceremonial kings but government was controlled by ephors
ephors
Sparta had an elected assembly and two ceremonial kings but government was ruled by overseers called _____________.
Athens
most populated city with over 300,000 citizens
slaves
___________outnumbered citizens in Sparta
xenophobic
irrational fear of foreigners; because of this, Spartans did not travel and visitors were not welcome
military
Spartan men were expected to be part of the efficient ______________and ate with the other men in mess halls instead of with their families
exposure
unhealthy babies were left to die of __________________.
military training
________________of boys began at the age of 7 and men served from 20-60
True about Spartan women
Spartan women had more freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be equally tough as men
False about Spartan women
Spartan women had less freedom then Greeks in other cities but were expected to be weaker than men
Sparta women
__________________took control of the city when the men were gone.
individual freedom
In Sparta _______________was sacrificed for the state
betrayal or treason
_________________was unheard of among Spartans
True about Spartans
They produced no great literature, art or science because everything was focused on military control
False about Spartans
They produced great literature, art and science
laconic
expressing much in few words; original meaning of this word referred to the people of Sparta
Xenophon
A Greek historian who said, "the most extraordinary thing of all is that despite the universal praise for Sparta's society, not a single city is willing to copy it."
True about the remains of Sparta
Very little remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today
False about the remains of Sparta
There are many remains of Sparta or Spartan civilization today
Athens
was a city of trade and had much contact with other people.
True about Athens women
Athens women could have citizenship but could not participate in government or vote; were expected to be quiet and domestic.
False about Athens women
Athens women could not have citizenship but could participate in government or vote.
Metics
______________were free residence and were living and making money but could not participate in government.
assembly
By 510, all men over the age of 20 were members of the _______________.
female, slave or foreigner
Athens were very democratic unless you were a _________, ______________ or ________________.
men
All _____________voted on all issues in Athens.
jury
Athens held trial by _____________.
direct
Athens was a _____________democracy rather than an __________democracy.
protection
Athens had a military primarily for ____________rather than a way of life, as in Sparta.
naval
Athens was more of a _____________power than Sparta.
talk
Athenians loved to _________________.
Greece
Today Athens is the capital of ________________.
Persians
The Greeks fought the ______________ and then themselves.
Cyrus the Great
In 546 BC, _____________________built a began the Persian empire by defeating the _____________.
Ionia
The Greek colonies on the coast of ______________ refused to pay tribute or taxes to Persian so they rebelled.
Athenians
The _______________assisted Ionia in their rebellion against Persian.
Darius
_______________wanted to punish Athens, so he sent a massive army to Greece in 490 BC.
Battle of Marathon
A major battle outside of Athens.
part-time, citizen soldiers
Athenian army consisted primarily of ________________ who were protecting their home states.
Persians
After just a few hours of the Battle of Marathon, 6,400 ___________had died and only 192 Athenians.
Pheidippides
Ran 26 miles back to Athens with the good news of the Athens win over the Persians
Xeres
__________became the ruler of Persia after his father, Darius died
Battle of Thermopyle
In the ________________ 300 Spartans and 6,000 allies met 200,000 Persians
Spartans
All the ________________died in the Battle of Thermopyle but so did 20,000 Persians.
Salamis
Xeres finally got to Athens and found that the Athenians had moved to ________________.
Athenians
In 480 BC the _________________won the war against the Persians and become the superpower of Greece
Battle of Salamis
The _____________________started the Golden Age of Athens.
Pericles
The greatest Athenian leader of all time. Elected general for 16 years and led the city for 30 years
democratic
Athens was very ______________under the leadership of Pericles
equals
Athens did not treat other cities as ________________ which resulted in another war.
Peloponnesian War
War between Athens and Sparta that lasted 27 years.
Athens
In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great navy.
Sparta
In the Peloponnesian War, _______________had a great army.
plague
Sparta laid seige to Athens and a great ____________struck during the war.
Sparta
In 404 BC __________________defeated Athens with some assistance from the Persian.
Macedon
Sparta won the war, but could not defend itself from other Greek city-states and eventually ________________would rule Greece.
Socrates
Originally a sculpture but later become a teacher
philospher
Socrates would rather be called a ________________ than a sophits because he considered them deceitful, proud and "user of words"
absolute truth
Socrates believed in people thinking for themselves and using reason & logic to discover __________________.
sophists
_______________believed in relative truth - that truth can change depending on the the situation.
Socratic Method
taught by using questions - Jesus later would teach the same way
Know Yourself
famous saying of Socrates
democracy
Socrates criticized ________________because he believed the untrained were elected.
atheism
Socrates was put to trial because he was accused of _______________ and corrupting youth.
hemlock
Socrates was found guilty in his trial and chose to die by __________rather than be exiled.
Plato
scientist and philosopher who was a student of Socrates
dialogue
Plato recorded the thoughts of Socrates in ______________form.
The Republic
Plato's most famous work about an ideal government run by a trained class of philosopher kings
Metaphor of the Cave
One of the most famous stories of philosphy in the Western world; found in The Republic
ideals
Plato believed you could not know the truth in the real world, but in the world of _______________.
Aristotle
scientist, philospher and student of Plato
material world
Aristotle believed in finding truth in the ______________.
plants and animals
Aristotle classified _________________________.
politics
Aristotle wrote about logics and _________________.
Catholic church
Artistotle was considered an authority of life by the _______________ and was called the "Master".
Truth about the characteristics of Greek religion
Greek religion had no moral focus or salvation. There were no commandments or holy book.
False about the characteristics of Greek religion
Greek religion had a lot of moral focus and believed in salvation. Greeks had their own commandments and holy book.
True about Greek afterlife
Greeks were not concerned very much about life after death
False about Greek afterlife
Greeks were very concerned about life after death
Mount Olympus
Greek gods like on __________________.
polytheistic
many gods
Zeus
Father of the gods; Roman name was Jupiter
Hera
wife of Zeus and protector of women
Poseidon
god of the sea
Hades
god of the deaad
Athena
goddess of wisdom and warrior
Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty
Apollo
god of the sun, music and poetry
Dionysus
god of wine
Olympics
The ________________were held in honor of Zeus and were held every four years and lasted five days
776 BC
The first Olympiad was held in this year
Heraea
Women had their own Olylmpics called _______________.
Doric, Ionic & Corinthian
columns used in Greek architecture
Doric
simple and favorite column used in Greek architecture
Ionic
column in Greek architecture that has "eyes" or scrolls
Corinthian
most elaborate column in Greek architecture; leafy design
Parthenon
best example of Greek architecture; temple for the goddess Athena
amphitheaters
________________were built in hill sides and were shaped as half circles
Roman
most of what we know about Greek painting and sculpting comes from descriptions and ___________copies
vases
Best preserved Greek art painting can be found on _______________.
Phidias
known for his great statues of Athena and Zues
Temple of Olympia
location of Phidias' statue of Zeus and and considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World
Greek art
___________________glorified the gods and humanity.
humanity
__________________was idealized - no blemishes
traits
________________represented things such as strength, intelligence, beauty, grace and courage.
city-states
Greeks showed pride in their ______________________ through their art.
ideals
Greeks expressed _________________of harmony, balance and order combined with beauty and usefulness.
write plays
Greeks were the first to __________________.
True about Greek plays
Only men were allowed to be actors and participate in plays.
False about Greek plays
Both men and women were allowed to be actors and participate in plays.
tragedies
Greeks excelled in writing _________________, a play in which the main character struggles with life.
hubris
pride or overconfidence by Greek actors who considered themselves to have the same knowledge or abilities of the gods.
Oedipus Rex
perfect example of a tragedy and most famous pla during Greek time period.
comedies
Greeks also wrote _____________, plays that mocked people and ideas
Aristophanes
greatest Greek comedic playwright
The Clouds
famous Greek play which poked fun at Socrates and other important Greek people
farming
________________was an important occupation for Athenians.
manufactured, traded
Athenians _______________high quality vases and ____________them with trade ships all over the Mediterranean.
True about Athenian family life
Athenian's family life consisted of arranged marriages, women had few rights and it was a very patriarchal society.
False about Athenian family life
Athenian's family like had very few arranged marriages, women had the most rights and it was a very matriarchal society.
pedagogue
slave tutor who educated wealthy boys
True about Athenian schooling
only the boys were educated in literature classics, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric and arithmatic
False about Athenian schooling
both boys and girls were educated in literature classics, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric and arithmatic
Greek
the most widely spoken language of the Mediterranean; the New Testament was written in this language
Philip of Macedon
Father of Alexander the Great
Macedonia
north of Greece and were related to the Greeks
strong Army
Macedonia had a ________________of 10,000 men who were regularly paid
Macedonian Army
The _____________________ also had an infantry of foot soldiers and calvary of mounted men.
phalanx
organized part of the infantry with 16 rows of tightly spaced soliders with lances
Philip of Macedon
unified his own people and conquered the Greek city-states by 338 BC
Alexander the Great
took over Macedon at the age of 20 after his father was assassinated at his daughter's wedding by an ex-bodyguard
Alexander the Great
_________________tutored by Aristotle, helped his father conquer the Greeks and was a very brave and skillful general
Hellenistic
means "like the Greeks"
India
Alexander the Great wanted a Hellenist empire stretching to ______________.
Persian Empire
In 334 BC Alexander the Great invaded the ________________.
Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia
Alexander the Great had conquered __________________by 331 BC
Gordium Knot
traditional story Alexander the Great heard after his first victory which said it could only be undone by the ruler of the world; Alexander the Great cut it in half
Persian
destroyed _______________armies and cpatured the wife and daugther of this countries king.
Egypt
Alexander the Great liberated this country; many cities named after him
Babylon
Alexander the Great made this city his capitol.
Indus
Alexander the Great marched his army all the way to ______________ but after 10 years, his men rebelled and turned around
Roxanne
Alexander the Great returned to Babylon and married _____________, a Persian princess to show cultural unity
cholera or malaria
Alexander died of this at the age of 33
Hellenistic Empire
_________________was fought over by generals
Ptolemy
most famous general who took over Egypt; this dynast lasted for 200 years
Cleopatra
_______________was the last Ptolomy and Egypt became a Roman province after this death
Hellenized
to become Greek-like and prosper
Hellenized Jew
__________________are mentioned int eh New Testament
Alexandria
Became prosperous-had over 1 million people and a library with 750,000 papyrus scrolls
cynics, stoics, epicureans
three Hellenistic philosophies
Cynics
sought only virtue, rejected pain and pleasure
Diogenes
most famous cynic
Stoics
believed reason directed the world; thought you should be indifferent to pain & pleasure
stoicism
founded by Zeno
Epicurus
founded one of the Hellenistic philosophies which focused on pleasure
Epicureans
motto was "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die.
Euclid
Greek mathematician often referred to as the "Father of Geometry"
Archimides
calculated the value of pie (ratio of circumference of a cirlce to its diameter)
Aristarchus
believed Earth and planets moved around the sun
heliocentric
theory that the earth and planets moved around the sun
Eotosthenes
calculated the circumference of the world within 50 miles of the true circumference
slaves
Greeks did not have much practical use for the knowledge because ___________did all the work.