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2021-22 CMW WHAP - Unit 4 - 2019 CED: Transoceanic Interconnections
Terms in this set (41)
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic; used for long voyages at great speed from 15th to 17th centuries; used for exploration, not trade
a large trading merchant ship operating in European waters (especially by the Portuguese) in the 14th to the 17th century.
Dutch sailing vessel that allowed them to control the Baltic trade; designed to facilitate transoceanic delivery with max space and crew efficiency; used from 16th to 17th centuries
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa; sponsored seafaring expeditions to search for an all-water route to the east; imported enslaved Africans via the sea
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route for Europeans
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
trading post empire
Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples; practiced by Europeans in the Indian Ocean as they took over trade from Arab and Muslim merchants
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus' voyages.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought; colonies were crucial in the accumulation of wealth
The Great Dying
Term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas.
Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person; the form of slavery utilized in the Americas during the trans-Atlantic slave trade
More than half of the slaves brought to the new world as part of the Middle Passage ended up working on Sugar plantations
economic system in Inca society where people paid taxes with their labor and what they produced; later exploited by the Spanish as they forced Incas to mine silver
A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Spanish estates in the Americas that were often plantations. They often represent the gradual removal of land from peasant ownership and a type of feudalistic order where the owners of would have agreements of loyalty but would retain control over the actual land. This continued into the 20th century.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts; used by European rulers to finance exploration and were used by rulers to compete against one another in global trade
Royal chartered monopolies
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to Indian Ocean colonies
or voodoo is a New World syncretic faith that combines the animist faiths of West Africa with Roman Catholic Christianity; evidence of the syncretism created when European and African beliefs merged in the Americas
Originating in Cuba, a religion that blends African traditions and Christian beliefs
Paintings that show the racial mixing of a family. Shows hierarchy of society.
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed native American and European descent.
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
Descendants of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status.
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing royal control and increased taxation
Nat Turner's Rebellion
a slave rebellion led by Nat Turner that took place in Virginia in 1831; one example of slave resistance challenging existing authorities in the Americas
British East India Company
A British joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Dutch East India Company
Government Dutch-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s whereby Africa sent slaves to the Americas, the Americas sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns and rum to Africa in exchange for slaves
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
The route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Little Ice Age
Temporary but the significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers' exploitation of the slave trade.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Money coming from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, bulk of worlds silver eventually ended up in China
Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city.
A chain of islands annexed by the Spanish in 1521 when Magellan's fleet arrived.
Previously thought to be caused by the influx of precious metals from Latin American mines, but many now believe that it was also due to the population increase (and the resulting increase in demand for land and food without increasing supply)
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